Module 6 Assignment
- Locate a nursing study that examines the effects of an intervention. Provide a summary of the study, focusing primarily on the intervention. Was the development and implementation of the intervention described in detail? Based on a theoretical framework? Did the design of the study promote investigation of the effects of the study—for example, was there comparison of experimental and control groups? Were there variables that could have impacted the findings that were not part of the intervention? Was there evidence of efforts to monitor the safety of participants? Are there any ways that the study could have been improved?
- Locate a nursing study that utilizes some aspect of the internet (for instance, for recruitment, delivery of an intervention, or completing online assessments. What challenges did the researchers face, and how were these challenges overcome (or not)? How could future research efforts be improved?
- Using your computer’s office tools, develop a pie, bar, or plot chart to represent the following population estimates:
European American 20
African American 30
Native American 20
Hispanic American 30
The assignment should be between 1500 and 2000 words in length and contain at least two scholarly sources, in addition to the textbook and provided material. Please submit your assignment in one APA formatted document.
Expert Answer and Explanation
Summary of Articles
In nursing, an intervention is actual action and treatment that are conducted with the aim of helping patients with various diseases to reach the objectives set for them by their clinicians (Tappen, 2016). Nurses are needed to use their critical thinking, knowledge, and experience to decide the best interventions they can recommend to their patients (Sanson et al., 2019). The nursing practice has divided interventions into different classes. The first class of interventions is the ones that aim at promoting safety and healthy lifestyles. These kinds of interventions are not treatments. However, they help patients attain quality health. Another group of interventions is the ones that educate patients about certain issues. Tuominen et al. (2019) mention that other classes of interventions strive to promote physical health, community health, and complex psychological needs. In other words, Stolt and Suhonen (2019) argue that nursing professionals have divided interventions into three and they include dependent, independent, and interdependent interventions. In this assignment, two studies have been reviewed.
Summary of the Article Showing Effects of an Intervention
A Summary of the Study
The article that has been focused on in this part of the assignment is A mixed-method study of an education intervention to reduce the use of restraint and implement person-centered dementia care in nursing homes by Jacobsen et al. (2017). The main objective of this study “was to investigate which factors hindered or facilitated staff awareness related to confidence-building initiatives based on person-centered care, as an alternative to restraint in residents with dementia in nursing homes” Jacobsen et al. (2017). The education intervention that consisted of monthly coaching sessions and two-day seminar targeted employees in 24 nursing facilities found in Western Norway. The researchers used a mixed-method design that combined qualitative and quantitative research methods. QPS-Nordic (The General Nordic questionnaire for psychological and social factors at work) and The P-CAT (Person-centered Care Assessment Tool) tools were used by the researchers to measure employees’ impacts in terms of the perception of leadership and person-centered care. The study concluded that staff culture together with leadership was the most significant factor promoting or hindering workers’ awareness in terms of confidence development actions, and on the care that is person-centered.
Description of the Intervention’s Development and Implementation
The researchers described how the intervention was developed and implemented clearly. The intervention was carried out among employees in 24 nursing facilities found within the Western Norway Regional Health Authority. The researchers selected six nursing organizations from the four Health Trusts found in the country. The researchers then grouped the participants into two groups namely control (12) and an intervention (12) groups. The researchers invited all the registered nurses to take part in the study. The researchers used a mixed-method design to develop the intervention. Implementation of the MEDCED education intervention was done by two teams. Each team had four registered nurses who were not part of the study. The nurses had experience in working with patients from nursing homes, and this facilitated the intervention in the 24 nursing organizations. The intervention was implemented over a period of one year six months from 2012 September to 2013 May. The research team educated the facilitator for seven days and taken them through various workshops before including them in the study. In other words, the researchers have clearly described how they developed and implemented the intervention in a section known as “The overall study: The MEDCED intervention study.”
The researchers based their intervention on a theoretical framework known as Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS). PARIHS is a theoretical framework that can be used to highlight leadership, contextual elements of culture, and evaluation when implementing a given intervention in nursing (D’Onofrio et al., 2019). In other words, the framework was used to highlight various contextual factors that can be considered when implementing the educational intervention. Staff related issues are among the factors looked at using the theory. Person-centeredness was defined as a nursing practice approach that is established through the creation and fostering of healthy connections between older patients, all caregivers, and any other person significant to the patients’ lives. The approach is underpinned by the ethical values of respect for the individual, their right to self-confidence, and understanding. The assumption of this framework is that increased person-centered awareness and knowledge make it easy for workers to discover substitutes for using restraint in caring for dementia patients. The theory has been used to explain the failure or success of the intervention. According to the framework, understanding how and why contextual issues impact learning should be linked to how and why they affect workers’ skills and motivation.
Design of the Study
The design used in the study is known as a mixed-method “intervention design.” According to Cleo et al. (2019), the mixed-method design is an approach that uses both qualitative and qualitative frameworks to achieve research objectives. The first characteristic of a mixed-method design is that the data can be collected using methods found in either research questions. A mixed-method design is mainly used to explore a new phenomenon. The design improved the investigation of the effects of the intervention on people with dementia. Through the design, the researchers combined participatory action research (PAR) with a cluster-RCT and ethnographic study. the combination was done because the researchers wanted to study the impact of the intervention. Also, the researchers wanted to add qualitative information to research the impact of promoting and hindering the implementation factors. The qualitative and quantitative data were compared. Data collected from both methods were vital. When analyzing qualitative material, the dataset informed the researchers on what to analyze and the qualitative results helped in identifying the significant elements of the intervention such as formal education.
Variables in the Study
In any research, researchers should develop two main variables. The variables include independent and dependent variables. Independent variables are the ones that are not affected in the study while dependent variables are the ones that are normally affected by the independent variables. The independent variable in this study was “education intervention”. “Education intervention” has been selected as the independent variable because it affects the implementation of person-centered and use of restraint in dementia care. The dependent variable in this study is the degree of person-centered care. However, there is another variable that could affect the findings of the study. This variable is “staff perception of leadership.” Leadership was seen as a factor that can promote or hinder the effects of educational intervention in the study. in some of the nursing homes, the staff felt that their leaders and not involving in resident and staff matters. In other words, the leaders distance themselves from workers’ issues, and this was not healthy for the implementation of the intervention. The intervention could be successful only when the leaders were involving and connected to the staff.
Efforts to Ensure Participants’ Safety
Every researcher must ensure that his or her participants are safe in accordance to research laws and ethics. The researchers can ensure participants’ safety by seeking their consent before the onset of the study. Also, the scholars must seek the consent of various bodies and agencies before they start working on their research. The researchers in this article showed some efforts that promoted participants’ safety. They showed efforts by asking the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics in Norway for approval of the MEDCED study. The organization gave the researcher approval number 2012/304/REK vest, approved 28.03.2012. Also, the researchers made information about the participants private and confidential as per the research ethics. The researchers also asked the Norwegian Social Science Data Services for approval to use registered nurses as the facilitators. Lastly, the researchers gave the participants’ consent forms and educated them about the study.
Ways of Improving the Study
This study was done perfectly. The researchers clearly mentioned the objective of the research. Also, they sort approval from different bodies in a move to ensure participants’ safety. The background of the study has highlighted why research is vital for nursing professionals. The methodology section has also highlighted the methods used to conduct the study. the authors also explained the theory they based on when conducting the study. However, some issues should be polished for the research to be more perfect. The researchers should maintain two variables to avoid adding impurities to the results. Lastly, qualitative data should be collected from all the participants in the study.
Problems of Using Internet in Research
This part is focused on locating and analyzing a nursing research article that utilizes some aspects of the internet to find out the challenges and how they were overcome. Developing a video-based eHealth intervention for HIV-positive gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial by Hirshfield et al. (2016) has been selected for the analysis. The objective of the article is “to describe the protocol of a randomized controlled trial evaluating whether video-based messaging delivered online may lead to reductions in serodiscordant CAS and increased HIV disclosure” (Hirshfield et al., 2016).
A large part of the study’s methodology depended on online tools. Also, the invention itself was implemented through internet tools. The researchers faced some problems in their study. First, not all the people targeted by video-based randomized controlled trial saw the videos. Second, some participants had poor phones that could not support online viewing. Lastly, the researchers faced internet problems. However, the researchers overcome the challenges by first offering the participants better phones that they could use in viewing the online content. Second, they upgraded their internet protocols to overcome internet problems. Lastly, they provided participants with free Wi-Fi to save them from mobile data issues. The researchers can improve the study by also using other media to implement the intervention instead of focusing only on the internet.
Cleo, G., Scott, A. M., Islam, F., Julien, B., & Beller, E. (2019). Usability and acceptability of four systematic review automation software packages: a mixed method design. Systematic Reviews, 8(1), 145.
D’Onofrio, G., Edelman, E. J., Hawk, K. F., Pantalon, M. V., Chawarski, M. C., Owens, P. H., … & Huntley, K. (2019). Implementation facilitation to promote emergency department-initiated buprenorphine for opioid use disorder: protocol for a hybrid type III effectiveness-implementation study (Project ED HEALTH). Implementation Science, 14(1), 48.
Hirshfield, S., Downing Jr, M. J., Parsons, J. T., Grov, C., Gordon, R. J., Houang, S. T., … & Chiasson, M. A. (2016). Developing a video-based eHealth intervention for HIV-positive gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. JMIR research protocols, 5(2), e125.
Jacobsen, F. F., Mekki, T. E., Førland, O., Folkestad, B., Kirkevold, Ø., Skår, R., … & Øye, C. (2017). A mixed method study of an education intervention to reduce use of restraint and implement person-centered dementia care in nursing homes. BMC nursing, 16(1), 55.
Sanson, G., Alvaro, R., Cocchieri, A., Vellone, E., Welton, J., Maurici, M., … & D’Agostino, F. (2019). Nursing diagnoses, interventions, and activities as described by a nursing minimum data set: a prospective study in an oncology hospital setting. Cancer nursing, 42(2), E39-E47.
Stolt, M., & Suhonen, R. (2019). Supporting Individualised Nursing Care by Nursing Interventions. In Individualized Care (pp. 187-194). Springer, Cham.
Tappen, R. (2016). Advanced nursing research: From theory to practice (2nd Ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett. ISBN: 978-1284048308.
Tuominen, L., Stolt, M., Meretoja, R., & Leino‐Kilpi, H. (2019). Effectiveness of nursing interventions among patients with cancer: An overview of systematic reviews. Journal of clinical nursing, 28(13-14), 2401-2419.
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