[ANSWERED] Based on Case Study: Fetal Abnormality and the required topic study materials, write a 750-1,000-word reflection that answers the following questions:

Based on Case Study: Fetal Abnormality and the required topic study materials, write a 750-1,000-word reflection that answers the following questions:

Based on Case Study: Fetal Abnormality and the required topic study materials, write a 750-1,000-word reflection that answers the following questions:

Based on Case Study: Fetal Abnormality and the required topic study materials, write a 750-1,000-word reflection that answers the following questions:

  1. What is the Christian view of the nature of human persons, and which theory of moral status is it compatible with? How is this related to the intrinsic human value and dignity?
  2. Which theory or theories are being used by Jessica, Marco, Maria, and Dr. Wilson to determine the moral status of the fetus? What from the case study specifically leads you to believe that they hold the theory you selected?
  3. How does the theory determine or influence each of their recommendations for action?
  4. What theory do you agree with? Why? How would that theory determine or influence the recommendation for action?

Remember to support your responses with the topic study materials.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

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Case Study: Fetal Abnormality

Jessica is a 30-year-old immigrant from Mexico City. She and her husband Marco have been in the United States for the last three years and have finally earned enough money to move out of their Aunt Maria’s home and into an apartment of their own. They are both hard workers. Jessica works 50 hours a week at a local restaurant and Marco has been contracting side jobs in construction. Six months before their move to an apartment, Jessica finds out she is pregnant.

Four months later, Jessica and Marco arrive at the county hospital, a large, public, nonteaching hospital. A preliminary ultrasound indicates a possible abnormality with the fetus. Further scans are conducted, and it is determined that the fetus has a rare condition in which it has not developed any arms and will not likely develop them. There is also a 25% chance that the fetus may have Down syndrome.

Dr. Wilson, the primary attending physician, is seeing Jessica for the first time, since she and Marco did not receive earlier prenatal care over concerns about finances. Marco insists that Dr. Wilson refrain from telling Jessica the scan results, assuring him that he will tell his wife himself when she is emotionally ready for the news. While Marco and Dr. Wilson are talking in another room, Aunt Maria walks into the room with a distressed look on her face. She can tell that something is wrong and inquires of Dr. Wilson. After hearing of the diagnosis, she walks out of the room wailing loudly and praying aloud.

Marco and Dr. Wilson continue their discussion, and Dr. Wilson insists that he has an obligation to Jessica as his patient and that she has a right to know the diagnosis of the fetus. He furthermore is intent on discussing all relevant factors and options regarding the next step, including abortion. Marco insists on taking some time to think of how to break the news to Jessica, but Dr. Wilson, frustrated with the direction of the conversation, informs the husband that such a choice is not his to make.

Dr. Wilson proceeds back across the hall, where he walks in on Aunt Maria awkwardly praying with Jessica and phoning the priest. At that point, Dr. Wilson gently but briefly informs Jessica of the diagnosis and lays out the option for abortion as a responsible medical alternative, given the quality of life such a child would have. Jessica looks at him and struggles to hold back her tears.

Jessica is torn between her hopes of a better socioeconomic position and increased independence, along with her conviction that all life is sacred. Marco will support Jessica in whatever decision she makes but is finding it difficult not to view the pregnancy and the prospects of a disabled child as a burden and a barrier to their economic security and plans. Dr. Wilson lays out all of the options but clearly makes his view known that abortion is “scientifically” and medically a wise choice in this situation. Aunt Maria pleads with Jessica to follow through with the pregnancy and allow what “God intends” to take place and urges Jessica to think of her responsibility as a mother.

Expert Answer

Fetal Abnormality Case Study

Conservative ways of thinking in all sectors including health is one of the reasons why many people experience health challenges (Greiner & Conklin, 2015). For example, if a sick woman in the hospital refuses to take a certain medication prescribed to them in the hospital because their church pastor told them not to do so, it is treated as a conservative action, which could lead to endangering her life or even loss of the life (Cherry, 2016).

For this reason, health professionals recommend argument using evidence-based theories, where the action they take is always justified by the proven theory. Transcendence theory of human personality and Murray’s theory of psychogenic needs is one of the theories that can be used in making such arguments. Cases of fetal abnormality should also be taken with caution, ensuring that the spiritual consideration and the medical considerations are factored in with the right thresholds.

Murray’s Theory of Psychogenic Needs

In the case of Jessica, an immigrant from Mexico who realizes that the baby she has been carrying for six months has no hands, has a high risk of having down’s syndrome, and has other abnormalities, the most applicable theory for use in decision making is Murray’s Psychogenic theory. In the theory, Murray describes needs as the potentiality to respond in a specific way given the occurrence of certain circumstances (Cherry, 2016). When Jessica approaches the clinic with her husband Marco, they meet Dr. Wilson who decides to talk to Marco privately upon realizing the crude nature of the pregnancy.

At first, Marco is unwilling to reveal the information to Jessica but when Jessica’s Aunt feels that there is something wrong, she goes out screaming and praying out aloud. Jessica’s Aunt is a staunch pro-lifer and she cannot in any circumstance recommend the abortion of the baby. Dr. Wilson, however, is a person who believed in situational ethics, and he presents the case to Jessica, and explains to her all the possible chances she could take, including abortion.

Christian View of the Nature of Human Persons based on the Case

One of the actions that Aunt Maria does when she receives the news is making a phone call to her priest, probably to make some consultations about the issue. It seems that she is so much convinced about the higher power that she is not even willing to attempt to reason with any other direction of morality. The Christian view of the nature of human persons is that life begins at conception, and should not be stopped under any situation whatsoever.

By aborting the abnormal baby, Aunt Maria and Jessica feel that they would be killing a life that God has planned for them. For this reason, Aunt Maria advocates that she should keep the baby, and they would wait to see what God will unfold for them.

Agreement with the Theory

The collective decision of couples about the nature of life may differ, especially where they hold different religious ideologies or have different situational convictions (Hume & Chasen, 2015). Marco is willing to support Jessica in any action she takes but he feels that having a disabled baby while there is an option of getting rid of the pregnancy is a mistake. Being a staunch catholic, Aunt Maria is likely to be unmoved on the idea of changing her decision of keeping the pregnancy of a disabled baby. Much of the decision they make has to be influenced by Aunt Maria, since she has been housing them ever since they migrated from Mexico.

I believe the couple, the Aunt, and Dr. Wilson holds Murray’s theory of psychogenic needs because they all view the needs they have as their readiness to respond their current situation in a given way. Here, the secondary needs are the main question of concern. Murray’s theory holds that secondary needs are mostly psychosocial, and are important to explain or determine the eventual psychosocial well-being of an individual.

One of the main reasons why I believe the couple holds this theory is the fact that in his analysis, Marcos realizes that the child will be a heavy economic backlog on the already growing family. Also, he is convinced that they will stop performing well even when they had not fully stabilized from their situation.

How the Theory Determines the Recommendations for Action

The theory determines each of their recommendations for action in that they have a guideline or a standard from which they can cross-check the correctness of their decisions (Cherry, 2016). Needs, in the theory, are described as the potentiality to respond in a given way when presented with a tough situation (Cherry, 2016). The current need is the presence of an unwanted baby, and hence this has to trigger several actions, which would either get rid of the baby, or keep it.

Jessica’s Aunt, however, is conservative as she believes that spirituality has a greater role to play than morality, and that the couple should keep the baby regardless of the kind of life they will be forced to live. Personally, I strongly agree with Murray’s theory, where I would recommend the couple to take have an abortion and will increase their chances of having a better life with other healthier babies.


Cherry, K. (2016). Murray’s Theory of Psychogenic Needs. Hentet1, 14.

Greiner, A. L., & Conklin, J. (2015). Breaking bad news to a pregnant woman with a fetal abnormality on ultrasound. Obstetrical & gynecological survey70(1), 39-44.

Hume, H., & Chasen, S. T. (2015). Trends in timing of prenatal diagnosis and abortion for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology213(4), 545-e1.

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What is the Christian View of the Nature of Human Persons?


As one of the world’s largest religions, Christianity has its own unique perspective on the nature of human beings. According to Christian beliefs, humans are not just physical beings but also possess a spiritual essence. In this article, we will explore the Christian view of the nature of human persons in detail.

The Creation of Human Persons

In the book of Genesis, it is written that humans were created in the image of God. This belief is central to Christian doctrine and suggests that human beings possess certain characteristics that reflect the divine nature. Christians also believe that God breathed life into Adam and Eve, making them living beings. This belief implies that humans are more than just flesh and blood, but also possess a spiritual dimension.

The Duality of Human Nature

The Christian view of human nature is dualistic, meaning that humans have both a physical body and a spiritual soul. According to this view, the body and soul are interconnected, but also distinct from one another. This belief suggests that human beings are more than just physical entities, but also have a spiritual essence that sets them apart from other creatures.

The Physical Body

In Christian doctrine, the physical body is seen as a vessel for the soul. It is the means by which humans interact with the physical world and is subject to the laws of nature. Christians believe that the body is mortal and will eventually decay, but that it will be resurrected in a glorified state at the end of time.

The Spiritual Soul

The spiritual soul is seen as the essence of human nature in Christianity. It is the source of human consciousness, morality, and spiritual life. According to Christian beliefs, the soul is immortal and will continue to exist after death. The soul is also believed to be the part of human nature that is created in the image of God.

The Fall of Human Nature

According to Christian doctrine, human nature was originally perfect, but was corrupted by sin. The story of Adam and Eve’s disobedience in the Garden of Eden is often seen as the origin of human sin. This belief suggests that humans are inherently flawed and that sin has affected every aspect of human nature, including the physical body and the spiritual soul.

Redemption of Human Nature

Despite the fall of human nature, Christians believe that redemption is possible through faith in Jesus Christ. According to Christian doctrine, Jesus’ death on the cross was a sacrifice that paid the penalty for human sin. This belief suggests that through faith in Jesus, humans can be forgiven and restored to their original state of purity.

The Importance of Human Dignity

The Christian view of human nature also emphasizes the importance of human dignity. According to Christian beliefs, every human being is created in the image of God and therefore has inherent value and worth. This belief implies that all humans deserve to be treated with respect and compassion, regardless of their circumstances or behavior.


In conclusion, the Christian view of the nature of human persons is dualistic, emphasizing the importance of both the physical body and the spiritual soul. According to Christian doctrine, humans are created in the image of God, but their nature was corrupted by sin. Redemption is possible through faith in Jesus Christ, and all humans possess inherent dignity and worth.

Human Properties Theory: Understanding the Characteristics That Define Us

Human beings are complex creatures, with a wide range of traits and behaviors that set us apart from other living beings on this planet. The Human Properties Theory seeks to explore the core properties that make us uniquely human, from our cognitive abilities to our social structures. In this article, we will dive into the fundamental aspects of the theory, exploring what it means to be human, and how our properties have evolved over time.


Before we dive into the Human Properties Theory, let’s define what we mean by “properties.” Properties are the fundamental traits or characteristics that define a being or an object. For example, the properties of water are that it is transparent, tasteless, and odorless. In the same way, human properties are the traits that make us uniquely human.

The Core Properties of the Human Being

According to the Human Properties Theory, there are several core properties that define us as human beings. Let’s explore these properties in more detail:

Cognitive Properties

Our cognitive properties refer to our mental abilities, including perception, reasoning, and problem-solving. These properties are the foundation of our intelligence, allowing us to think abstractly, communicate with others, and create complex social structures.

Emotional Properties

Our emotional properties refer to our capacity to experience a wide range of emotions, from joy and love to fear and anger. These properties enable us to connect with others, empathize with their feelings, and form deep social bonds.

Biological Properties

Our biological properties refer to our physical makeup, including our anatomy, physiology, and genetic makeup. These properties are responsible for our physical appearance, our susceptibility to disease, and our overall health.

Social Properties

Our social properties refer to our ability to interact with others, form relationships, and create social hierarchies. These properties are essential for our survival, allowing us to work together, form communities, and build civilizations.

The Evolution of Human Properties

The Human Properties Theory suggests that these core properties have evolved over time, as our species has adapted to different environments and faced new challenges. For example, our cognitive properties have evolved to help us solve increasingly complex problems, while our emotional properties have evolved to help us navigate social situations.

Additionally, our social properties have evolved to reflect our changing societies, as we have moved from small, hunter-gatherer groups to large, complex civilizations. As we have developed new technologies and cultural practices, our social structures have adapted accordingly, leading to the emergence of new forms of social hierarchy and power dynamics.


In conclusion, the Human Properties Theory provides a framework for understanding the fundamental characteristics that define us as human beings. From our cognitive and emotional properties to our social and biological properties, these traits have evolved over time to help us survive and thrive in a constantly changing world. By exploring these properties in more detail, we can gain a deeper appreciation for what it means to be human and how we can continue to evolve and adapt to new challenges in the future.

Christian Theory of Moral Status

As a Christian, you might be wondering what the Bible says about the moral status of human beings. In this article, we will delve into the Christian theory of moral status and explore the concept of human dignity. We will discuss the biblical basis for the intrinsic worth of human beings and how it shapes our understanding of ethical issues. By the end of this article, you will have a better understanding of why human life is valuable and how we can apply this knowledge in our everyday lives.

What is Moral Status?

Moral status is the degree to which something or someone is deserving of ethical consideration. In other words, it is the value that we place on a particular entity in terms of its moral worth. For example, a person has a higher moral status than an animal, and an adult has a higher moral status than a child. Moral status is a central concept in ethics, and it is essential to consider when making ethical decisions.

The Biblical Basis for Human Dignity

The Christian theory of moral status is rooted in the Bible. In Genesis 1:26-27, we read that God created human beings in his own image, “male and female he created them.” This passage emphasizes that human beings are created in God’s image, and as a result, we have inherent worth and dignity. This means that every human life is valuable, regardless of their race, gender, age, or abilities.

Imago Dei

The concept of Imago Dei (Latin for “Image of God”) is central to the Christian understanding of human dignity. Imago Dei refers to the belief that human beings were created in God’s image and that we reflect his divine nature. This means that human beings have a unique relationship with God and that we possess inherent worth and dignity. As Christians, we believe that every human life is sacred and deserving of respect.

The Sanctity of Life

The Christian belief in the sanctity of life stems from the belief in Imago Dei. This means that every human life is valuable and should be protected. The sanctity of life is a fundamental principle of Christian ethics and informs our understanding of ethical issues such as abortion, euthanasia, and capital punishment. Christians believe that every human life is a gift from God and that it is our responsibility to protect and cherish it.

Ethical Implications of Human Dignity

The concept of human dignity has several ethical implications. Firstly, it means that we should treat all human beings with respect and dignity. This includes people from different races, genders, and cultures. Secondly, it means that we should advocate for the protection of human life in all its forms. This includes the protection of unborn children, the elderly, and the vulnerable. Finally, it means that we should seek to promote justice and equality in our society. This includes fighting against discrimination, poverty, and oppression.


The Christian theory of moral status emphasizes the intrinsic worth and dignity of every human being. The belief in Imago Dei and the sanctity of life underpin our understanding of human dignity and inform our ethical decisions. As Christians, we are called to treat all human beings with respect and dignity, to protect human life in all its forms, and to promote justice and equality in our society.

Cognitive Properties Theory: Understanding the Relationship between Language and Thought

In the field of linguistics and cognitive psychology, there is an ongoing debate about the relationship between language and thought. While some argue that language influences our thoughts and perceptions, others believe that our thoughts determine our language. One theory that attempts to explain this relationship is the Cognitive Properties Theory. In this article, we will explore this theory in detail and understand its implications for language and cognition.


The relationship between language and thought has long been a topic of interest in the fields of linguistics, philosophy, and psychology. While there is no clear consensus on this topic, several theories attempt to explain this complex relationship. One such theory is the Cognitive Properties Theory, which suggests that our language is a reflection of our underlying cognitive processes.

What is Cognitive Properties Theory?

Cognitive Properties Theory (CPT) is a linguistic theory that proposes a close relationship between language and thought. According to this theory, the words and grammatical structures that we use reflect our mental processes and how we perceive the world. CPT posits that certain cognitive properties, such as categorization, spatial relationships, and temporal distinctions, are fundamental to both language and thought. In other words, the way we use language is a reflection of our mental processes and the way we understand the world around us.

Historical Background

Cognitive Properties Theory emerged in the mid-20th century as a response to the behaviorist approach to language and cognition. Behaviorism suggested that language was learned through reinforcement and conditioning, and that thoughts and perceptions were a result of environmental stimuli. Cognitive Properties Theory, on the other hand, proposed that language and cognition were closely intertwined and that language was not simply a response to external stimuli.

Key Principles of Cognitive Properties Theory

There are several key principles that underlie Cognitive Properties Theory. These principles include:

  1. Language is a reflection of underlying cognitive processes.
  2. Cognitive processes are universal and cross-cultural.
  3. Certain cognitive properties are fundamental to both language and thought.
  4. Linguistic structures reflect the cognitive properties of a language.
  5. The relationship between language and thought is bidirectional.

The Role of Linguistic Structures in Cognitive Properties Theory

According to Cognitive Properties Theory, the way that we use language reflects the underlying cognitive properties of our minds. Linguistic structures, such as grammar, syntax, and word order, are seen as reflections of these cognitive processes. For example, languages that have a large number of spatial terms, such as “above,” “below,” and “behind,” are thought to reflect a greater sensitivity to spatial relationships.

The Relationship between Language and Thought

Cognitive Properties Theory proposes a bidirectional relationship between language and thought. On the one hand, our thoughts and perceptions influence the language that we use. For example, if we have a concept of time as a linear sequence, we are likely to use temporal markers such as “before” and “after” in our language. On the other hand, language can also shape our thoughts and perceptions. For example, research has shown that speakers of languages that use gendered pronouns tend to perceive objects as having gendered characteristics.

The Influence of Culture on Cognitive Properties

Culture plays a significant role in shaping our cognitive processes and the way we use language. While Cognitive Properties Theory posits that certain cognitive properties are universal, cultural differences can influence the way we perceive and categorize the world around us.

For example, different cultures may have different conceptualizations of time. Western cultures tend to view time as a linear sequence, with a past, present, and future. In contrast, some indigenous cultures view time as cyclical, with events repeating in a continuous cycle. This difference in conceptualization is reflected in the language used to talk about time. English, for example, has many words and phrases for expressing temporal relationships, such as “before,” “after,” and “during.” In contrast, some indigenous languages may not have words for specific time periods, but instead rely on contextual cues.

Cultural differences can also influence the way we categorize objects and events. For example, different cultures may have different color categories. In English, there are 11 basic color terms, such as “red,” “green,” and “blue.” In contrast, some languages may have only two or three basic color terms. This difference in categorization is reflected in the way we perceive and remember colors.

The influence of culture on cognitive processes is also evident in the way we use language to express politeness and respect. Different cultures have different norms and expectations around polite language use. For example, in some cultures, it is considered polite to use indirect language and avoid direct statements that may be perceived as confrontational. In other cultures, direct language is valued and seen as a sign of honesty and sincerity. These differences in language use reflect cultural norms and expectations around social interactions.

Overall, the influence of culture on cognitive properties highlights the importance of considering cultural context when studying language and thought. While certain cognitive properties may be universal, cultural differences can significantly shape the way we use language to perceive and categorize the world around us.

Applications of Cognitive Properties Theory

Cognitive Properties Theory has numerous applications in various fields, including linguistics, psychology, and education. Here are some examples of how this theory can be applied:

  1. Language teaching: Cognitive Properties Theory can be used to design language curricula that take into account the cognitive properties of language. For example, teachers can focus on teaching vocabulary and grammar in a way that aligns with how the brain naturally acquires language.
  2. Cognitive psychology: Cognitive Properties Theory can be used to study how the brain processes language and other cognitive tasks. For example, researchers can use cognitive neuroscience techniques to investigate how different brain regions are activated during language processing.
  3. Cross-cultural communication: Understanding the cognitive properties of different languages and cultures can help people communicate more effectively across cultures. For example, knowledge of the different ways that time is conceptualized in different cultures can help people avoid misunderstandings and communicate more effectively.
  4. Natural language processing: Cognitive Properties Theory can be applied to natural language processing (NLP), which involves developing computer algorithms to process and understand human language. NLP algorithms can be designed to take into account the cognitive properties of language, such as the way words are categorized and how meaning is constructed.
  5. Language disorders: Cognitive Properties Theory can be used to study and treat language disorders, such as aphasia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment. By understanding how the brain processes language, researchers and clinicians can develop more effective treatments for these disorders.

Overall, Cognitive Properties Theory has wide-ranging applications in various fields and can help us better understand language and cognitive processes.

Limitations and Criticisms of Cognitive Properties Theory

While Cognitive Properties Theory has contributed significantly to our understanding of language and cognition, it has also faced some limitations and criticisms. Here are some of the main critiques of this theory:

  1. Universality assumption: One criticism of Cognitive Properties Theory is that it assumes that certain cognitive properties are universal across all languages and cultures. However, this assumption has been challenged by research that has identified cultural and linguistic differences in cognitive processes.
  2. Reductionist approach: Another criticism is that Cognitive Properties Theory takes a reductionist approach to understanding language and cognition. By breaking down language into discrete units and focusing on cognitive properties, this theory may oversimplify the complex and multifaceted nature of language and cognition.
  3. Neglect of social and cultural factors: Cognitive Properties Theory tends to focus on individual cognitive processes and neglects the influence of social and cultural factors on language and cognition. This approach may limit our understanding of how language and cognition are shaped by social and cultural contexts.
  4. Lack of attention to context: Cognitive Properties Theory tends to focus on isolated linguistic examples and does not pay enough attention to the contextual factors that influence language use and interpretation. This limitation may result in a narrow understanding of language and cognition.
  5. Limited scope: Finally, Cognitive Properties Theory has a limited scope, focusing mainly on language and cognition, while neglecting other important aspects of human experience, such as emotions and social interactions.

Future Directions in Cognitive Properties Research

Cognitive Properties Theory has opened up new avenues for research in linguistics, psychology, and other related fields. Here are some potential future directions in cognitive properties research:

  1. Cross-linguistic and cross-cultural comparisons: Researchers can continue to explore cross-linguistic and cross-cultural differences in cognitive properties. For example, by comparing how different languages categorize concepts, researchers can better understand how language and culture shape cognitive processes.
  2. Developmental and lifespan perspectives: Cognitive Properties Theory can also be applied to the study of cognitive development across the lifespan. Researchers can investigate how cognitive properties change over time and how they are affected by different developmental milestones.
  3. Multimodal communication: Cognitive Properties Theory can be expanded to include other forms of communication beyond language, such as visual and gestural communication. By investigating how different modalities are used to communicate meaning, researchers can better understand the complex nature of communication.
  4. Computational models: Cognitive Properties Theory can be used to develop computational models of language and cognition. By simulating cognitive processes in computer algorithms, researchers can test and refine cognitive properties theories and gain new insights into how language and cognition work.
  5. Clinical applications: Cognitive Properties Theory can be applied to the development of new treatments for language disorders and other cognitive impairments. By understanding how cognitive processes are affected by these disorders, researchers and clinicians can develop more effective interventions.


In conclusion, Cognitive Properties Theory has provided us with a useful framework for understanding the cognitive processes involved in language use and interpretation. By breaking down language into discrete units and identifying cognitive properties that are shared across languages, this theory has advanced our understanding of how language works.

However, as with any theory, Cognitive Properties Theory is not without its limitations and criticisms. It tends to oversimplify the complex and multifaceted nature of language and cognition and neglects the influence of social and cultural factors on these processes.

Moving forward, it is important to continue to explore the potential of Cognitive Properties Theory and to address its limitations through a more holistic and interdisciplinary approach to studying language and cognition. By doing so, we can gain new insights into the complex nature of communication and interaction and develop more effective interventions for language disorders and other cognitive impairments.

Overall, Cognitive Properties Theory has provided a valuable contribution to our understanding of language and cognition, and its impact is likely to continue to be felt in the years to come.



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