Power in Organizations
Have you ever been involved in union organizing, collective bargaining, or worked in a union shop? If so, share your experience. If not, locate a scholarly journal article that describes collective bargaining and describe how it works within an organization.
Have you ever worked in a healthcare facility that had Magnet accreditation, or had experience with shared governance? If so, share your experience. If not, locate a scholarly journal article that describes shared governance and explain how it could be implemented in your current facility.
Expert Answer and Explanation
Power in Organizations
Over the years, people have been forming organizations to campaign for their employment rights and discuss other social factors. Through the formation of organizations, equality has been achieved in some sectors, such as the treatment of people with different sexual orientations and cultural, ancestral, and racial backgrounds. If people such as Martin Luther King had tried to negotiate for equal treatment individually, probably, he could not be successful. The phenomenon is also experienced in the workplace, where it is easier for workers to negotiate work conditions as a group than as individuals through collective bargaining. In other situations, companies engage in shared governance as it is necessary to create favorable policies for all participants. Through collective bargaining and shared governance, it is possible to understand organizations’ power in advocating for their members at the workplace.
Collective Bargaining And How It Works In An Organization
Collective bargaining is a process through which working people can negotiate their employment contracts with their employers to understand the terms of employment, job safety, benefits, leave and pay, among others. Over the years, it is through collective bargaining that employees have achieved better status at their workplace and further ensured that their safety is not compromised. According to Cazes et al. (2019), collective bargaining can occur at different levels which include firm level, sectoral level, and national level. The authors also explain multi-level bargaining, which combines firms and higher-level collective bargaining. Cazes et al. (2019 note that coordinated systems such as those that have organized decentralization have higher employment than full decentralization. It is also notable that in areas where there is collective bargaining, there is lower or greater wage dispersion compared to systems that lack collective bargaining and those that set wages independently. This shows that employees can enjoy the same salaries if they are in the same job group through collective bargaining.
Cazes et al. (2019) further note that in areas where there are centralized bargaining systems, there is likely to have lower productivity. This shows that a lack of flexibility at the firm level, which mostly represents a centralized bargaining system, can affect the firm’s productivity. On the other hand, when there are decentralized systems, it is clear that there are no adverse effects on productivity. As far as collective bargaining is concerned, Cazes et al. (2019) explain that where coordination works effectively, it is more likely to be supported by employer associations because it moderates wage growth and ensures a high level of mediation. The authors concluded that engaging in collective bargaining greatly contributes to labor market inclusiveness and can create a macroeconomic effect when it covers a large share of workers and companies.
The process of collective bargaining has been essential as it can contribute to either the success or failure of the initiative. It is notable that collective bargaining mostly occurs as a better alternative when comparing options such as strikes and quitting (Julius & DiGiovanni, 2019). The first step in collective bargaining is preparing for bargaining, where the teams are involved in identifying areas they want to improve and determining a strategy to help them move forward with the negotiations (National Education Association). The second stage involves conducting the negotiations and the union and management explain the rationale behind their proposals. This stage usually depends on the law provisions concerning the areas being addressed. In the third stage, the contract can be ratified if the parties have reached a tentative contract agreement. However, this is after the union has a meeting with the employees to discuss the offers made by the company, and then they are asked to vote using a secret ballot where the majority of votes determines if the contract will be ratified or rejected. The fourth stage occurs if the parties fail to reach an agreement, and through state law, they can decide on how to resolve the dispute, either using mediation, arbitration, or a strike (National Education Association). The fifth and last stage is changing or clarifying the contracts, where the parties can discuss any section of the ratified contracts and revise it to ensure that issues of mutual concerns are solved as the employees continue their employment contracts.
Shared Governance And How It Can Be Implemented In The Facility
When focusing on nursing, shared governance is crucial as it promotes nursing empowerment and encourages shared decision-making, ensuring that all professionals are accountable for their actions and contribution to the hospital’s processes. Shared governance is therefore defined as a process through which the board of governance, faculties, and staff participation are coordinated in the work and decision-making process and administrative leadership. The main aim of shared governance is to balance participation and ensure that all members take equal responsibility in their organizational roles.
Through shared governance, it is possible to improve patient outcomes as all clinicians are involved in decision-making about the issues that impact them and the hospital’s services. Moreover, shared governance is crucial as it enables a culture that fosters a transparent review of work practices and further supports personal and professional development by involving evidence-based practices. It is, however, important to understand that implementing shared governance is hard and time-consuming, and therefore more organizations are likely to shun the practice. Nonetheless, the outcomes of shared governance usually outweigh the obstacles experienced, and with a good process in place, it is possible to have an effective, shared governance policy.
According to Brennan & Wendt (2021), several principles should be ensured when implementing shared governance. They include accountability, innovation, autonomy, team building, leadership, ownership, and practice equity. Combining these models makes it possible to create a shared governance model that ensures quality patient care and promotes continuous quality improvement in the health facility. When forming shared governance, Kiwanuka (2022) explains using Kotter’s eight-step change theory to ensure success. In the first stage, the company should create a sense of urgency surrounding the need for change. In the facility, this can include a discussion of the importance of shared governance and how it can effectively enhance the company’s productivity. In this stage, the company can also discuss various scenarios that can be accomplished through shared governance and further determine the opportunities and the potential threats that can be experienced. The second stage is to form coalitions with leaders who can convince their followers of the importance of the change, as this will increase responsibility amongst leaders (Carman et al. 2019). In the third step, the leaders can create a vision of change by determining the values central to the change and creating a strategy that aims to execute the vision. In the fourth stage, the change can be communicated to the shareholders effectively, making it easy for them to believe in the change and even support it (Carman et al. 2019). In this stage, it is also important for the leaders to address all members’ concerns and further take in the contribution of members hence customizing the shared governance into what the organization needs. The fifth step involves removing obstacles, such as convincing the people resisting change and addressing other obstacles. The sixth step explains that the organization can create short-term wins that will encourage the company to continue the process. The seventh step focuses on building on the change, and through it, victory is not declared, but the leaders work on perfecting the program to ensure that it addresses the needs as needed (Carman et al. 2019). The last step included anchoring the changes in a corporate culture where the leaders work on making the adapted model part of the company’s culture hence making it ingrained in its practices. By abiding by this change model, it can be possible for the facility to implement shared governance in the company seamlessly.
Organizations have much power, and by effectively utilizing it, it can be possible to ensure the quality of work life for the members and to ensure further that productivity is enhanced at the workplace. Through collective bargaining, employees can ensure that they work in a safe environment and that their pay and benefits reflect the work they are accomplishing. On the other hand, shared governance ensures that everyone in the organization has an equal chance to make a difference and can further be accountable for their actions. This is especially important in healthcare facilities where some professionals feel that they do not have a sufficient role to play. Through shared governance, every member participates and is responsible for the care outcomes.
Brennan, D., & Wendt, L. (2021). Increasing Quality and Patient Outcomes with Staff Engagement and Shared Governance. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 26(2).
Carman, A. L., Vanderpool, R. C., Stradtman, L. R., & Edmiston, E. A. (2019). Peer Reviewed: A Change-Management Approach to Closing Care Gaps in a Federally Qualified Health Center: A Rural Kentucky Case Study. Preventing chronic disease, 16.
Cazes, S., Garnero, A., & Martin, S. (2019). Negotiating our way up Collective bargaining in a changing world of work. OECD Publishing: Paris, France.
Julius, D. J., & DiGiovanni Jr, N. (2019). Academic collective bargaining: status, process, and prospects. Academic Labor: Research and Artistry, 3(1), 11.
Kiwanuka, K. (2022). A Contemporary Shared Governance Structure and Its Role in Managing Nurse Turnover. School of Nursing, the University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences. Theses.
National Education Association. The 5 Stages of Collective Bargaining. https://www.nea.org/resource-library/5-stages-collective-bargaining
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