Prepare this assignment as a 1,500-1,750-word paper using the instructor feedback from the previous course assignments and the guidelines below.
Revise the PICOT question you wrote in the Topic 1 assignment using the feedback you received from your instructor.
The final PICOT question will provide a framework for your capstone project (the project students must complete during their final course in the RN-BSN program of study).
In the Topic 2 and Topic 3 assignments, you completed qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research critiques on two articles for each type of study (four articles total). Use the feedback you received from your instructor on these assignments to finalize the critical analysis of each study by making appropriate revisions.
The completed analysis should connect to your identified practice problem of interest that is the basis for your PICOT question.
Use the “Research Critiques and PICOT Question Guidelines – Final Draft” document to organize your essay. Questions under each heading should be addressed as a narrative in the structure of a formal paper. Please note that there are two new additional sections: Outcomes Comparison and Proposed Evidence-Based Practice Change.
You are required to cite a minimum of three peer-reviewed sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years, appropriate for the assignment criteria, and relevant to nursing practice.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.
Title of the Paper
Do not add any extra spaces between your heading and your text (check Spacing under Format, Paragraph in your word processor, and make sure that it’s set to 0”)—just double space as usual, indent your work a full ½ inch (preferably using the tab button), and start typing. Your introduction should receive no specific heading because it is assumed that your first section is your introduction section.
Once you’ve considered these formatting issues, the introduction is a good place to include the nursing practice problem and the PICOT statement. This statement will then provide your reader with a lens for understanding the forthcoming research you’ve decided to present in the body of your essay (after all, each piece of literature should support and be made applicable to this thesis statement).
Once you’ve established your thesis, you can then begin constructing your introduction. An easy template is as follows:
- Start with what’s been said/done regarding your topic of interest.
- Explain the problem with what’s been said or done.
- Offer your solution, your thesis statement (one that can be supported by the literature).
- Explain how your thesis brings about social change.
Background of Studies
In this section discuss the background information from the studies. Remember to make sure your first sentence in each paragraph both transitions from your previous paragraph and summarizes the main point in your paragraph. Stick to one topic per paragraph, and when you see yourself drifting to another idea, make sure you break into a new paragraph. Try to avoid long paragraphs to avoid losing your reader and to hold his or her attention–it’s much better to have many shorter paragraphs than few long ones. Think: new idea, new paragraph.
Here’s another Level 1 heading. Again, the topic sentence of this section should explain how this is related or a result of what’s been discussed in the previous section.
The Level 2 heading here implies that this is a subsection of the previous section. Using headings are a great way to organize your paper and increase its readability, so be sure to review heading rules on APA 3.02 and 3.03 in order to format them correctly. For shorter papers, using one or two levels is all that is needed. You would use Level 1 (centered, bold font with both uppercase and lowercase) and Level 2 (left aligned, bold, both uppercase and lowercase).
One crucial area in APA is learning how to cite in your academic work. You really want to make sure you cite your work throughout your paper to avoid plagiarism. This is critical: you need to give credit to your sources and avoid copying other’s work at all costs. Look at APA starting at 6.01 for guidelines on citing your work in your text.
Results of Studies
Do the same here as was done above. Introduce the level one heading by saying this section will discuss the qualitative and quantitative results.
APA can seem a bit tricky to master, but it’s really fairly straightforward once you get the hang of it. There are also plenty of sources to help you—don’t be afraid to ask!
Again, the topic sentence of this section should explain how this is related or a result of what’s been discussed in the previous section.
PICOT Statement, Research Article, and Nursing Practice Problem Link
In this section discuss the nursing practice problem in the PICOT question. Talk about how the articles support or don’t support the intervention in the PICOT question. Remember to follow the guidelines. This section is worth more points and needs to be thorough in how the PICOT question will impact nursing practice.
Conclusion or Summary
Your conclusion section should recap the major points you have made in your work. However, perhaps more importantly, it should also interpret what you have written and what it means in the bigger picture. In your concluding remarks, think big! Some questions to ask yourself include: What do you want to happen with the information you’ve provided? What do you want to change? What is your ultimate goal in using this information? What would it mean if the suggestions in your paper were taken and used?
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Babar, E. (2007). The art of being a French elephant. Adventurous Cartoon Animals, 19, 4319-4392. Retrieved from http://www.elephants104.ace.org
Bumstead, D. (2009). The essentials: Sandwiches and sleep. Journals of Famous Loafers, 5, 565-582. doi:12.2847/CEDG.39.2.51-71
Hansel, G., & Gretel, D. (1973). Candied houses and unfriendly occupants. Thousand Oaks, CA: Fairy Tale Publishing.
Hera, J. (2008). Why Paris was wrong. Journal of Greek Goddess Sore Spots, 20(4), 19-21.
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Research Critiques and PICOT Question Guidelines – Final Draft
Quantitative and Quantitative Studies
- Summary of studies. Include problem, significance to nursing, purpose, objective, and research question.
How do these two articles support the nurse practice issue you chose?
- Discuss how these articles will be used to answer your PICOT question.
- Describe how the interventions and comparison groups in the articles compare to those identified in your PICOT question.
Method of Study:
- State the methods of the articles you are comparing and describe how they are different.
- Consider the methods you identified in your chosen articles and state one benefit and one limitation of each method.
Results of Study
- Summarize the key findings of each of the studies into a comprehensive summary.
- What are the implications of the four studies you chose in nursing practice?
- Discuss two ethical consideration in conducting research.
- Describe how the researchers in the four articles you choose took these ethical considerations into account while performing their research.
- What are the anticipated outcomes for your PICOT question?
How do the outcomes of the four articles you chose compare to your anticipated outcomes?
Expert Answer and Explanation
Research Critiques and PICOT Statement Final Draft
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is common in older people. Goorah and Dorkhy (2020) report that approximately 5.8 million people had AD in the US. The majority of this population were older people aged 65 and above. The authors also argue that the incidences of AD in older people often doubles every five years. AD has no treatment, and medications are often given to manage the symptoms. Apart from medications, AD can be managed using music therapy.
Clements-Cortes et al. (2017) noted that music therapy effectively improved the mood and mental health of people with AD. The nursing practice problem in this research project is the impact of music therapy on AD symptoms. The PICOT statement that supports the project is; in seniors aged 65 years or older with Alzheimer’s Disease, does music therapy compare with no music therapy decrease psychological and behavioral symptoms of AD within thirty days? This project will bring social change by improving the quality of life of people with AD.
Background of Studies
Two qualitative and two quantitative articles supporting music therapy in managing AD have been critiqued. The first study was done by Clements-Cortes et al. (2017). The article was based on the hypothesis that “Rhythmic Sensory Stimulation (RSS) could stimulate the auditory and somatosensory system at 40Hz with the potential for improvements in cognition for persons with AD (Clements-Cortes et al., 2017, p. 167).” The article is significant to nursing because it introduces RSS as a new AD management strategy.
The second study was done by Goorah and Dorkhy (2020). The purpose of the study was to investigate the effective non-pharmacological therapies to treat AD. One of the therapies the study focused on was music therapy. The research question was; what are effective non-pharmacological therapies that can manage AD.
The findings of this study will support nurses’ choice of music therapy to manage AD. The third article was done by Cho (2018). The purpose of the study was “to compare the short-term effects of a music therapy-singing group with those of a music medicine-listening group and a control-TV group, on quality of life and affect of persons with dementia at a long-term care facility (Cho, 2018.” This study will improve nurses’ knowledge about various aspects of music application in AD treatment.
The last article was done by Franco et al. (2018). The problem researched by the authors is music therapy and its impacts on AD. The purpose of the study was to identify and understand the difference between healthcare professionals’ recommending practices, perspectives, and knowledge on music therapy as a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for AD. Understanding the differences will help all healthcare professionals determine more effective and cost-effective strategies to manage AD.
The four articles investigated their respective problems using qualitative or quantitative research methods. In this section, the methodology applied by researchers of the four articles used has been discussed.
The studies that used the qualitative research method were published by Goorah and Dorkhy (2020) and Clements-Cortes et al. (2017). Goorah and Dorkhy (2020) used a qualitative case study design to answer their research question. They focused on a single case population in their study. The benefit of case study design is that it allowed the authors to study the problem in detail.
Its limitation is that its findings are difficult to generalize due to limited representation. Clements-Cortes et al. (2017) applied cross-over design in their research project. Those designs allowed them to cross over participants over different frequencies of RSS. The benefit of the design is that it allows researchers to control participants differently.
Cho (2018) and Franco et al. (2018) applied the quantitative research method in their studies. Franco et al. (2018) applied a quantitative methodology with an exploratory, descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional research design. However, Cho (2018) applied a randomized-control trial. The authors used a pretest-posttest design to analyze outcomes. The participants were grouped into two music interventions and a control group. The difference between the research design used by the two articles is that Cho (2018) applied randomization sampling while Franco et al. (2018) did not use randomization.
Results of the Studies
The four articles reported several results regarding the impact of music therapy interventions on AD. In this section, the findings of the four studies have been discussed.
Goorah and Dorkhy (2020) reported many findings. First, the authors found that the in-depth responses of individuals with AD were linked to their opinions, perceptions, experiences, knowledge, and feelings. The authors also found that participants who engaged in physical activities, such as yoga, breathing exercise, and stretching, had better mental status.
The authors also found that music therapy improves patients’ mental health with AD. The participants in the study reported that they love to listen to music. The participants noted that they feel happy when they listen to music, and their mood and psychological well-being improve. Overall, the authors support music therapy as effective AD management.
The following are the findings of Clements-Cortes et al. (2017). The authors found that participants who underwent RSS had better interaction and clarity. The authors also noted that participants under RSS interacted well with their families and friends. The participants were able to engage with their families through music played under low frequencies.
Music also improved the patients’ awareness. The authors found that patients in music therapy could tell stories and discuss various points. Music therapy also improves alertness and awareness of their environment. RSS also improves patients with AD’s reminiscence. Overall, this article supports music therapy in managing people with AD.
According to Cho (2018), music therapy effectively improves the mental health of people with AD. The authors note that participants preferred old country-western music. Other preferred music types include rock & roll, big band, patriotic, classical, jazz, pop, musical, hymn, polka, rag music, folk, and Dixie land. The authors noted that healthcare professionals should understand the type of music their specific patients want. Music therapy improved the quality of life of people with AD.
Participants in the music therapy-singing group reported mental wellbeing and better quality of life than those in the control and music medicine-listening group. Being in music groups allowed patients with AD to interact with other people. Lastly, the authors also noted that music therapy positively impacted the patients’ mood and affect. Music therapy also had neurological benefits. The authors found that group singing is associated with the release of endorphins, a hormone linked to pleasure. The signing group is also linked to oxytocin release. The hormone is connected to stress and anxiety alleviation.
Franco et al. (2018) found that most non-physician professionals are more likely to recommend CAM to treat AD than physicians. Some practitioners did not recommend music therapy for therapeutic purposes because they do not like music. However, other healthcare professionals noted that they would recommend music therapy though they do not like music.
The authors note that healthcare professionals have different perspectives about types of music therapy. However, the authors concluded music therapy is an effective non-pharmacological strategy that can manage AD. The authors recommend that healthcare professionals be educated to improve their knowledge in applying music therapy to manage AD.
PICOT Statement, Research Article, and Nursing Practice Problem Link
My PICOT question investigates the impact of music therapy on people with AD. The four articles support the PICOT question. Goorah and Dorkhy (2020) support music therapy in managing people with AD. The authors found that patients with AD love to listen to music. The participants reported that music improves their mood and mental health. The authors conducted that music therapy can improve psychological and behavioral symptoms of people with AD.
Clements-Cortes et al. (2017) support the PICOT question by reporting that music improves awareness and alertness. The authors noted that people with AD who listens to music are aware of their environment. The authors also found that RSS improves the reminiscence and happiness of people with AD. Cho (2018) also found that music therapy improves people’s mental health with AD. The authors noted that patients with AD prefer different types of music.
Therefore, healthcare professionals should understand their patients and recommend songs that fit their tastes. The authors noted that music therapy positively affects patients with AD, mood, neurological system, and quality of life. Franco et al. (2018) support the PICOT by noting that most healthcare professionals are most likely to recommend music therapy for people with AD.
The authors concluded that healthcare professionals should receive proper education about applying music therapy to improve people with AD’s mental health. The PICOT question will impact nursing practice by contributing knowledge on AD management. Apart from AD, older people suffer other medical conditions, and thus they are often prescribed a lot of medications. They risk experiencing medication errors. This PICOT question will improve the safety of older people with AD by ensuring that their mental health is managed using non-pharmacological strategies.
All the research studies used applied informed consent in their research projects. The researchers sought informed consent from their respondents before involving them in their respective studies. All articles also ensured confidentiality and privacy of their participants. The authors of both qualitative and quantitative studies did not publish any information that could jeopardize the privacy of respondents.
This paper has critiqued four articles, two qualitative and two quantitative studies. The evidence-based practice studied is music therapy. The first study was done by Clements-Cortes et al. (2017). The authors also found that music therapy improves patients’ mental health with AD. The participants in the study reported that they love to listen to music.
The second article was published by Clements-Cortes et al. (2017). The authors found that participants who underwent RSS had better interaction and clarity. The authors also noted that participants under RSS interacted well with their families and friends. The third article was published by Cho (2018). The authors also noted that music therapy positively impacted the patients’ mood and affect. Music therapy also had neurological benefits.
The last article was done by Franco et al. (2018). The authors note that healthcare professionals have different perspectives about types of music therapy. This PICOT question will improve the safety of older people with AD by ensuring that their mental health is managed using non-pharmacological strategies.
Cho, H. K. (2018). The effects of music therapy-singing group on quality of life and affect of persons with dementia: a randomized controlled trial. Frontiers in Medicine, 5, 279. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2018.00279
Clements-Cortes, A., Bartel, L., Ahonen, H., & Freedman, M. (2017). The potential of rhythmic sensory stimulation treatments for persons with Alzheimer’s disease. Music and Medicine, 9(3), 167-173. https://mmd.iammonline.com/index.php/musmed/article/download/536/pdf
Franco, P. F., DeLuca, D. A., Cahill, T. F., & Cabell, L. (2018). Why practitioners should care about music therapy: Understanding its clinical relevance and practical implications through an evidence-based study. Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 24(2), 63-77. https://doi.org/10.1089/act.2018.29156.pff
Goorah, S., & Dorkhy, G. D. (2020). Non-pharmacological management of Alzheimer’s disease, a qualitative study in Mauritius. MedRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.25.20018747
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