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[ANSWERED 2023] Students must post one interesting case that he/she has seen in the clinical The case should be an unusual diagnosis, or a complex case that required in-depth evaluation

Students must post one interesting case that he/she has seen in the clinical The case should be an unusual diagnosis, or a complex case that required in-depth evaluation

What criteria must be met in order to consider a practice, evidence-based? Provide examples. Explain the role quality plays in evidence-based practice.

What criteria must be met in order to consider a practice, evidence-based?

Students must post one interesting case that he/she has seen in the clinical The case should be an unusual diagnosis, or a complex case that required in-depth evaluation on the student’s part. The case should be posted in the SOAP format, with references for the patient diagnosis, differential diagnoses (there should be at least 3), and the treatment plan.

In order to receive grade points for SOAP notes, the notes must be approved by the deadlines specified on the course assignments page. The posting does not have to be written in APA format, but should be written with correct spelling and grammar. References should be in APA format. The selected references should reflect current evidence –dated within the past 5 years.

Students must post one interesting case that he/she has seen in the clinical The case should be an unusual diagnosis, or a complex case that required in-depth evaluation on the student’s part.
The focus of the presentation must reflect the learning objectives of the course and drawn from the current clinical setting of the student practice site. The evaluation of the presentation is based on the following: Criteria Points Chief Complaint & pertinent history 10 Pertinent exam and diagnostics

10 Working diagnosis with supporting criteria 5 Management plan 5 Epidemiological data -cited from literature 10 Evidenced based rationale for treatment (literature based) 10 Analysis of self-care and family issues r/t diagnosis and treatment plan 20 Evaluation parameters to be used (or were used) to determine outcomes 10 Identify major “lessons learned” and how it may affect your future practice 20 Total100

Expert Answer and Explanation

Episodic/Focused SOAP Note

Patient Information:

Mrs. B is a 67-years-old Caucasian female.


CC: “I feel like my throat is sore; I have a headache and persistent dry cough.”

HPI: Mrs. B is a 67-years old Caucasian female to come to the medical facility complaining of a headache, sore throat, and dry cough that is persistent. The patient mentions that the signs stared by a flue with a running nose two weeks ago. However, the signs became severe three days ago. She rates the pain she feels on a scale of 7/10.

Onset: Two weeks ago.

Location: Respiratory region.

Duration: The pain has been increasing since two weeks ago.

Characteristics: The patient coughs a lot and complains of headaches and high fever.

Aggravating Factors: The disease is aggravated by cold weather.

Relieving Factors: Drinking a lot of water and resting.

Treatment: Plenty of fluids and bed rest.

Current Medications: OTC Motrin and Aspirin

Allergies: No allergy


Medication Intolerances: She has not medical intolerance.

Chronic Illnesses/Major traumas: She does not have any chronic or major condition.

Screening Hx/Immunizations Hx: The patient received pneumonia and malaria immunizations seven months ago. Since then, she has not been vaccinated again.

Hospitalizations/Surgeries: She underwent C-section surgery two years ago.

Fam Hx: The patient lives in a family of three siblings. Both her parents are alive. However, her father is suffering from well-controlled diabetes, and her mother has well-controlled arthritis. Her younger brother has asthma. Her maternal grandmother died of cancer.

Soc Hx: The patient is a nurse working in a nursing home. Her work is to care for older patients who cannot conduct ADLs by themselves. She is married with one child about two years old. She is also a strong catholic follower. She does not smoke, use alcohol, or take drugs. She likes working out, especially on the weekends.


GENERAL: The patient has a fever, dry, persistent cough, weakness, and fatigue.

HEENT: Head: She has a headache. Eyes: No vision problems. Ears, Nose, Throat: No ear infections. She has a sore throat and a stuffy nose.

SKIN: No skin diseases.

CARDIOVASCULAR: No chest pain or any other cardiovascular condition.

RESPIRATORY: She has difficulty breathing.

GASTROINTESTINAL: She does not have any gastrointestinal disease

GENITOURINARY: She sees her period regularly. The last time she saw her period was last month.

NEUROLOGICAL: No neurological disorder.

MUSCULOSKELETAL: Reports of body and muscle pains.


LYMPHATICS: No history of lymphatic conditions.

ENDOCRINOLOGIC: No endocrinologic conditions.

PSYCHIATRIC: No psychiatric condition.

BREAST: No breast diseases.

ALLERGIES: No report of any form of allergy.


Vitals: Her height is 154 cm, weight 79 kg, RR 18, HR 65, BT 38.7 degrees centigrade, and BP 127/90.

Physical exam: Observation and palpation were the main strategies used to conduct the physical exam (Abraham, Perkins, Vilke & Coyne, 2016). The patient was seen coughing persistently, and her nose was also stuffy. She was so fatigued that he could no sit. When touched, it was found that the patient’s body was hot.

Diagnostic results: The diagnostic test that might be ordered in this situation is the Polymerase reaction test (PRT). According to Li et l. (2017), this test is the most sensitive way of testing influenzas compared to any other test. It can be done when the patient is in the doctor’s office. The laboratory tests that can be done to detect the disease include Serology viral culture and rapid molecular assays.

Differential Diagnosis 

  1. Influenza Virus
  2. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
  3. Covid-19 Virus
  4. HIV/AIDS 
  5. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2)

 Primary diagnosis 

Influenza is the primary diagnosis for this case. Li et l. (2017) note that Influenza is a virus that attacks a patient’s breathing system. The parts that can be most affected by the disease include the throat, nose, and lungs. The disease can also be called flu. However, it should not be mistaken by the flu and causes stomach diseases. Some of the symptoms of the disease include aching muscles, weakness and fatigue, chills, and sweats, fever over 100.2 F, sore throat, headache, persistent cough, and nasal congestion.

This disease has been selected as the primary diagnosis because the patient has shown more than 99% of the symptoms highlighted above. The difference between this condition and the other diagnoses is that a patient with Influenza mostly experiences dry cough and is persistent (Wu et al., 2020).


Rapid antigen testing is another testing that can be done to fast-track the disease and what causes it. Wu et al. (2020) argue that on many occasions, Influenza can be treated by quality rest and drinking a lot of fluids. However, if the condition worsens, the patient should be prescribed antiviral medications, such as Rapivab, Tamiflu, and Relenza (Vanderbeke et al., 2018).

These medications will focus on suppressing the virus in the body. If the patient has difficulty breathing, she can be prescribed Zanamivir or put on a ventilator. Education should be focused on helping the patient fight the disease and minimize the rate of infection. Observing a balanced diet is a form of non-medication treatment.


Abraham, M. K., Perkins, J., Vilke, G. M., & Coyne, C. J. (2016). Influenza in the emergency department: vaccination, diagnosis, and treatment: clinical practice paper approved by American Academy of Emergency Medicine Clinical Guidelines Committee. The Journal of emergency medicine, 50(3), 536-542.

Li, H., Yang, S. G., Gu, L., Zhang, Y., Yan, X. X., Liang, Z. A., … & Yu, K. J. (2017). Effect of low‐to‐moderate‐dose corticosteroids on mortality of hospitalized adolescents and adults with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 viral pneumonia. Influenza and other respiratory viruses, 11(4), 345-354.

Vanderbeke, L., Spriet, I., Breynaert, C., Rijnders, B. J., Verweij, P. E., & Wauters, J. (2018). Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis complicating severe influenza: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment. Current opinion in infectious diseases, 31(6), 471-480. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000504

Wu, X., Cai, Y., Huang, X., Yu, X., Zhao, L., Wang, F., … & Lu, B. (2020). Co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus in patient with pneumonia, China. Emerging infectious diseases, 26(6), 1324. doi: 10.3201/eid2606.200299

Importance of Diagnosis: Understanding the Value of Diagnosis in Healthcare

Diagnosis is the process of identifying a disease or condition that is causing a patient’s symptoms. It is a crucial step in healthcare because it helps healthcare providers understand the underlying cause of a patient’s symptoms and design a treatment plan that is tailored to their specific needs. In this article, we will discuss the importance of diagnosis in healthcare and why it is essential for both patients and healthcare providers.


Diagnosis is a critical component of healthcare. It is the first step in identifying and treating an illness or condition. Without an accurate diagnosis, it is impossible to determine the appropriate treatment plan. Misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis can have severe consequences for patients, including prolonged illness, unnecessary treatments, and in some cases, even death. In this article, we will explore the importance of diagnosis in healthcare and the benefits of early diagnosis.

Understanding the Diagnostic Process

The diagnostic process involves a series of steps that healthcare providers use to identify the underlying cause of a patient’s symptoms. The process begins with a patient’s medical history, which provides important information about their health status, family history, and lifestyle factors. Following a medical history, healthcare providers perform a physical examination, which involves a thorough evaluation of the patient’s body to identify any signs of illness or disease.

The Importance of Accurate Diagnosis

Accurate diagnosis is essential for designing an effective treatment plan. A correct diagnosis ensures that the patient receives the appropriate treatment, reducing the risk of complications and improving their overall health outcomes. Misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis can lead to unnecessary treatments, prolonged illness, and increased healthcare costs.

Common Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

Diagnostic tests and procedures can help healthcare providers identify the underlying cause of a patient’s symptoms. Some common diagnostic tests include blood tests, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs), biopsies, and electrocardiograms (ECGs). These tests can help healthcare providers diagnose a wide range of conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and infections.

Benefits of Early Diagnosis

Early diagnosis is crucial for improving treatment outcomes and reducing healthcare costs. Here are some benefits of early diagnosis:

Improved Treatment Outcomes

Early diagnosis allows healthcare providers to design a treatment plan that is tailored to the patient’s specific needs. This can lead to better treatment outcomes, including reduced symptoms, faster recovery, and improved overall health.

Reduced Healthcare Costs

Early diagnosis can also help reduce healthcare costs. By identifying a condition early, healthcare providers can provide more cost-effective treatments and avoid unnecessary procedures or hospitalizations.

Challenges in Diagnosis

Despite the importance of accurate diagnosis, there are several challenges that healthcare providers face. Here are some of the most significant challenges:

Diagnostic Errors and Misdiagnosis

Diagnostic errors and misdiagnosis can have severe consequences for patients. Misdiagnosis can lead to delayed treatment or unnecessary treatments, which can cause harm to patients. Diagnostic errors can occur due to a range of factors, including miscommunication, lack of access to patient information, and human error.

Patient-Provider Communication

Patient-provider communication refers to the exchange of information between a patient and their healthcare provider. Effective communication is crucial for accurate diagnosis, treatment, and patient satisfaction. However, communication barriers such as language differences, cultural differences, and low health literacy can hinder effective communication.

One of the most significant barriers to effective communication is language differences. Patients who do not speak the same language as their healthcare provider may have difficulty understanding their diagnosis or treatment options. This can lead to miscommunication and misdiagnosis, which can have severe consequences for the patient’s health.

Cultural differences can also impact patient-provider communication. Different cultures have different beliefs and attitudes towards health and illness, which can affect how patients perceive their symptoms and treatment options. Healthcare providers must be aware of these cultural differences and take them into account when communicating with patients.

Low health literacy is another barrier to effective communication. Patients with low health literacy may have difficulty understanding medical terminology and healthcare instructions. Healthcare providers must use plain language and avoid medical jargon to ensure that patients understand their diagnosis and treatment options.

To overcome these communication barriers, healthcare providers can use techniques such as open-ended questioning, active listening, and empathy. These techniques can help healthcare providers understand their patient’s concerns and tailor their communication to meet their needs.

In summary, patient-provider communication is essential for accurate diagnosis, treatment, and patient satisfaction. Communication barriers such as language differences, cultural differences, and low health literacy can hinder effective communication. Healthcare providers must be aware of these barriers and use techniques such as open-ended questioning, active listening, and empathy to overcome them.

Enhancing Diagnosis in Healthcare

Diagnostic errors are a significant concern in healthcare. Inaccurate or delayed diagnoses can have severe consequences for patients, including prolonged suffering, treatment complications, and even death. To address this issue, healthcare providers and policymakers are exploring ways to enhance diagnosis in healthcare.

One approach to enhancing diagnosis is to improve clinical decision-making. Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) can help healthcare providers make more informed decisions by providing access to relevant patient data and clinical guidelines. CDSS can also flag potential diagnostic errors and suggest alternative diagnoses, improving accuracy and reducing the risk of misdiagnosis.

Another approach is to improve diagnostic testing. Advances in technology have led to new diagnostic tests that are faster, more accurate, and less invasive than traditional methods. For example, liquid biopsy tests can detect cancer using a simple blood sample, reducing the need for invasive procedures. Additionally, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) can analyze large amounts of patient data to identify patterns and support diagnostic decision-making.

Improving communication and collaboration between healthcare providers can also enhance diagnosis. For example, multidisciplinary team meetings can bring together different specialists to review complex cases and develop a consensus diagnosis. Additionally, patient engagement can play a crucial role in diagnosis. Empowering patients to participate in their care and share their symptoms and concerns with their healthcare providers can lead to more accurate diagnoses and better outcomes.

Finally, healthcare providers can improve diagnosis by implementing a culture of continuous improvement. This involves regular review and analysis of diagnostic processes to identify areas for improvement. Healthcare providers can also learn from diagnostic errors by conducting root cause analyses and developing strategies to prevent similar errors from occurring in the future.

In conclusion, enhancing diagnosis in healthcare is critical for improving patient outcomes and reducing the risk of diagnostic errors. Approaches such as improving clinical decision-making, improving diagnostic testing, enhancing communication and collaboration, and implementing a culture of continuous improvement can all contribute to more accurate and timely diagnoses. By embracing these approaches, healthcare providers can help ensure that patients receive the best possible care.

Case control studies examples

Case-control studies are a type of observational study that compares patients with a specific condition (cases) to patients without the condition (controls) to identify factors that may be associated with the condition. Here are some examples of case-control studies:

  1. Smoking and lung cancer: A case-control study could compare patients with lung cancer (cases) to patients without lung cancer (controls) to determine whether smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer.
  2. HPV and cervical cancer: A case-control study could compare patients with cervical cancer (cases) to patients without cervical cancer (controls) to determine whether human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a risk factor for cervical cancer.
  3. Birth defects and medication use: A case-control study could compare infants with birth defects (cases) to infants without birth defects (controls) to determine whether medication use during pregnancy is a risk factor for birth defects.
  4. Obesity and heart disease: A case-control study could compare patients with heart disease (cases) to patients without heart disease (controls) to determine whether obesity is a risk factor for heart disease.
  5. Pesticides and Parkinson’s disease: A case-control study could compare patients with Parkinson’s disease (cases) to patients without Parkinson’s disease (controls) to determine whether exposure to pesticides is a risk factor for Parkinson’s disease.

In all of these examples, the case-control study is used to identify factors that may be associated with a particular condition. By comparing cases to controls, researchers can determine whether a particular factor is more common in patients with the condition, which can help identify potential causes and risk factors.

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