[ANSWERED 2023] A 50 year old Caucasian female presents to the clinic with complaints of cough for almost 2 weeks. Positive productive green sputum with associated chills, sweating, and fever up to 101.5

A 50 year old Caucasian female presents to the clinic with complaints

A 50 year old Caucasian female presents to the clinic with complaints of cough for almost 2 weeks. Positive productive green sputum

Examining Chest X-Rays

Chest x-rays are an invaluable diagnostic tool as they can help identify common respiratory disorders such as pneumonia, pleural effusion, and tumors, as well as cardiovascular disorders such as an enlarged heart and heart failure. As an advanced practice nurse, it is important that you are able to differentiate a normal x-ray from an abnormal x-ray in order to identify these disorders.

The ability to articulate the results of a chest x-ray with the physician, radiologist, and patient is an essential skill when facilitating care in a clinical setting. In this Discussion, you practice your interprofessional collaboration skills as you interpret chest x-rays and exchange feedback with your colleagues.

Consider the three patient case studies and x-rays

Case Study 1

35-yearold Asian male presents to your clinic complaining of productive cough for two weeks. Stated he has had mild intermittent fever with myalgia, malaise and occasional nausea.

  • SH: works as a law clerk
  • PE: NP noted low grade fever (99 degrees), with very mild wheezing and scattered rhonchi.

Case Study 2

This is a 44-yearold Caucasian male being seen at your clinics with complaints of complaints of cough for 4 days and worsening. Stated he has had high grade fever. States he feels weak and has been in bed most of the last two days. Complains of exertional dyspnea, followed by dyspnea at rest, non-productive cough and pleuritic chest pain

  • MEDS: Zovirax, Diflucan, magic mouth wash, Zofran, mycostatin, filgrastin
    PMH: HTN, Hep C, HIV/AIDS, thrush
    SH: Past IV Drug abuse; lives in a group home;
    PE: VS: Ht: 5’7, Wt: 150#, BMI 23,

Anorexic male, febrile, tachypneic, tachycardic, with rales and rhonchi. You note decreased in breath sounds, dullness, and egophony

Case Study 3

A 50 year old Caucasian female presents to the clinic with complaints of cough for almost 2 weeks. Positive productive green sputum with associated chills, sweating, and fever up to 101.5. She manages a daycare and states that many of the children have had upper respiratory symptoms in the last two weeks. PMH: DM diagnosed 7 years ago, controlled on medications.

  • MEDS: Glyburide 10mg qd
  • PE: She looks ill with continuous coughing and chills.
  • BP 100/80, T: 102, HR: 110; O2Sat 97% on RA.
  • Lungs: +Crackles, increased fremitus
  • Labs: CBC 17,000 cells/mm3 , blood sugar is 120

To prepare:

  • Review Part 10 of the Buttaro et al. text in this week’s Resources, as well as the provided x-rays.
  • Reflect on what you see in the x-ray assigned to you by the Course Instructor.
  • Consider whether the patient in your assigned x-ray has an enlarged heart, enlarged blood vessels, fluid in the lungs, and/or pneumonia in the lungs.

Post an explanation of the primary diagnosis, as well as 3 differential diagnoses, for the patient in the case study you were selected or were assigned. Describe the role the patient history and physical exam played in the diagnosis. Then, suggest potential treatment options based on your patient diagnosis.

Expert Answer and Explanation

Examining Chest X-Rays

The Primary Diagnosis

The primary diagnosis for this case is pneumonia. Pneumonia is either a bacterial or viral infection that affects one or all parts of the lungs. According to Zhu et al. (2020), pneumonia infection is often spread through droplets from an infected person. This disease has been selected as the primary diagnosis because the patient reports that she has bee interacting with children showing upper respiratory signs for the last two weeks.

Some of the signs of pneumonia include fever, chills, a cough that produces mucus, and shortness of breath. The patient has reported almost all the signs highlighted above. The X-ray test showed that the patient has fluids in the alveoli, and according to Lapinsky, Leen, Mak, and Shafiee (2019), this is a sign of pneumonia.

Differential Diagnosis

1. Asthma

According to Chahin & Opal (2017), asthma is a chronic respiratory condition that causes a person’s airways to be inflamed, swollen, and narrow, making the individual experience difficulty breathing. Some of the symptoms of the disease include coughing that worsens, difficulty breathing, ad chest pain. This disease has been included in the diagnosis because it causes a cough that produces a lot of mucus as experienced by the patient.

2. Chronic Obstructive pulmonary disease

COPD is a group of medical conditions that block a person’s breathing system and thus make it hard for the individual to breathe. Some of the diseases’ signs include lack of energy that can cause fainting, frequent respiratory infections, swelling of legs and ankles, and a cough that produces mucus (Zhou et al., 2020). This disease has been included in the diagnosis because one of its signs is a cough that produces mucus like the one reported by the patient.

3. Lung cancer

Lung cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in the lung region. The disease symptoms include a new cough that does not fade, hoarseness, shortness of breath, bone pain, and losing weight (Yoon, Kim, Yang, & Ham, 2028). The disease has been included in the diagnosis because one of its symptoms is a prolonged cough, like the one experienced by the patient for two weeks.

Role of Patient History in the Diagnosis

The personal and medical history provided by the patient was so helpful when diagnosis the individual. The history was used to determine the causes of the ailment. Most of the respiratory problems are often caused by allergies. Therefore, information about allergies could help the medical doctor determine whether the patient’s condition is an allergic reaction (Zhou et al., 2020).

By stating where she works, it was concluded that she contracted the disease from the children or the one who infected the kids. Another important history in the diagnosis is that it helped the medical professional risk factors that could have increased the patient’s chances of being infected by the germ. Patient history also provided the medical professional with information about the diagnostic tests the patient can afford.

Potential Treatment Options

The treatment of the patient will depend on the type of pneumonia the individual has. If the patient has bacterial pneumonia, she should be prescribed antibiotics. However, if the condition is caused by a viral infection, the patient should be prescribed an antiviral medication to fight the virus. Fever can be relieved using medications, such as Tylenol, Motrin, and aspirin (Yoon et al., 2018).


Chahin, A., & Opal, S. M. (2017). Severe pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila: Differential diagnosis and therapeutic considerations. Infectious disease clinics of North America, 31(1), 111. https://doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000001092

Lapinsky, S., Leen, J., Mak, J., & Shafiee, M. A. (2019). A Challenging Case of Non-resolving Pneumonia: Keeping Antisynthetase Syndrome In the Differential Diagnosis. Canadian Journal of General Internal Medicine, 14(1), 25-28. https://www.cjgim.ca/index.php/csim/article/view/278

Yoon, Y. K., Kim, M. J., Yang, K. S., & Ham, S. Y. (2018). The role of serum procalcitonin in the differential diagnosis of pneumonia from pulmonary edema among the patients with pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiography. Medicine, 97(47). doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000013348

Zhou, M., Chen, Y., Yang, D., Xu, Y., Yao, W., Huang, J., … & Zou, L. (2020). A Deep Learning Pipeline for Accurate Differential Diagnosis between Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia and Influenza Pneumonia. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3539663

Zhu, N., Zhang, D., Wang, W., Li, X., Yang, B., Song, J., … & Niu, P. (2020). A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. New England Journal of Medicine. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017

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Left-Sided Pleural Effusion: Understanding Its Causes

Pleural effusion is a medical condition where there is an excessive buildup of fluid in the pleural space, the area between the lungs and the chest wall. This condition can cause various symptoms and complications depending on the underlying cause. In this article, we will focus on left-sided pleural effusion and its causes.

Understanding Pleural Effusion

Before we dive into the causes of left-sided pleural effusion, let’s first understand what pleural effusion is and its types.

What is Pleural Effusion?

Pleural effusion is a condition where there is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space. The pleural space is a thin layer of fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs and the chest wall. This space allows the lungs to move smoothly during breathing.

Types of Pleural Effusion

There are two types of pleural effusion: transudative and exudative. Transudative effusions occur due to imbalances in the pressure in the pleural space, while exudative effusions are caused by various diseases and conditions.

Left-Sided Pleural Effusion: Causes and Symptoms

Left-sided pleural effusion occurs when there is an excessive accumulation of fluid in the pleural space on the left side of the chest. Here are some of the common causes of left-sided pleural effusion:

Heart Failure

Heart failure is a medical condition where the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently, causing a backup of fluid in the lungs and other parts of the body. This condition can lead to left-sided pleural effusion.

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the lungs and can cause various symptoms, including left-sided pleural effusion. The cancer cells can invade the pleura and cause an accumulation of fluid.


Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can cause inflammation and fluid buildup in the pleural space. Left-sided pleural effusion can occur as a result of pneumonia.

Pulmonary Embolism

Pulmonary embolism is a serious medical condition where a blood clot blocks one of the pulmonary arteries in the lungs. This condition can cause left-sided pleural effusion.

Other Causes

Other causes of left-sided pleural effusion include tuberculosis, autoimmune disorders, and trauma.

Symptoms of Left-Sided Pleural Effusion

Left-sided pleural effusion can cause various symptoms, including:

  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Coughing
  • Fatigue
  • Fever

Diagnosis and Treatment

To diagnose left-sided pleural effusion, a doctor will perform a physical exam, take a medical history, and order imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment for left-sided pleural effusion depends on the underlying cause.

In some cases, the fluid may need to be drained using a needle or catheter. Medications may also be prescribed to treat the underlying condition causing the effusion.


Left-sided pleural effusion can be a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. If you experience any symptoms of pleural effusion, seek medical attention immediately.

Right Sided Pleural Effusion Causes: Understanding Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Pleural effusion is a condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, which is the space between the lung and the chest wall. This condition can occur on one side of the chest (unilateral) or both (bilateral). However, when it occurs on the right side, it is known as right-sided pleural effusion. In this article, we will explore the various causes of right-sided pleural effusion, its symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options.

1. Understanding pleural effusion

As mentioned earlier, pleural effusion is a condition in which fluid accumulates in the pleural space. Normally, there is a small amount of fluid present in this space that acts as a lubricant between the lung and the chest wall. However, when the production of fluid exceeds its absorption, or if there is a problem with the drainage of this fluid, pleural effusion occurs.

2. Causes of right-sided pleural effusion

There are several causes of right-sided pleural effusion, including:

Congestive heart failure

This is the most common cause of pleural effusion. Congestive heart failure occurs when the heart fails to pump blood effectively, causing fluid to accumulate in the lungs and other parts of the body, including the pleural space.

Lung cancer

Lung cancer can also cause pleural effusion. Cancer cells can grow in the lining of the lungs, known as the pleura, and cause an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space.


Pneumonia is a lung infection that can lead to pleural effusion. The infection causes inflammation, which can affect the pleura and cause fluid buildup.

Pulmonary embolism

A pulmonary embolism occurs when a blood clot travels to the lungs and blocks a blood vessel. This can cause pleural effusion as the lung tissue becomes damaged and fluid accumulates in the pleural space.


Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection that can affect the lungs and cause pleural effusion. The infection can cause inflammation of the pleura, leading to fluid accumulation.

Other causes

Other less common causes of right-sided pleural effusion include liver disease, autoimmune diseases, and certain medications.

3. Symptoms of right-sided pleural effusion

The symptoms of pleural effusion can vary depending on the amount of fluid present in the pleural space. Common symptoms include:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Coughing
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Unexplained weight loss

4. Diagnosis of right-sided pleural effusion

Diagnosing pleural effusion typically involves a physical exam, medical history review, and imaging tests. These tests may include:

  • Chest X-ray
  • CT scan
  • Ultrasound
  • Thoracentesis

5. Treatment options for right-sided

The treatment for pleural effusion depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. Some of the treatment options for right-sided pleural effusion include:


Thoracentesis is a procedure in which a needle is inserted through the chest wall to remove the excess fluid from the pleural space. This procedure can help relieve symptoms and improve breathing. It can also help determine the underlying cause of the effusion by analyzing the fluid.


Pleurodesis is a procedure in which a chemical or medication is inserted into the pleural space to create inflammation and scar tissue, which helps prevent the buildup of fluid. This procedure is typically recommended for recurrent pleural effusions or if thoracentesis is not effective.


Surgery may be recommended if other treatment options are not effective. The most common surgery for pleural effusion is called a decortication, which involves removing the pleural tissue and scar tissue from the lung to allow it to expand and function properly.


If the pleural effusion is caused by an underlying condition, such as congestive heart failure or tuberculosis, treating the underlying condition may help alleviate the symptoms of the effusion. Medications may be prescribed to treat the underlying condition, such as diuretics for congestive heart failure or antibiotics for tuberculosis.

6. Preventing right-sided pleural effusion

Preventing pleural effusion depends on addressing the underlying causes. To reduce the risk of pleural effusion, it is important to:

  • Quit smoking
  • Treat any underlying medical conditions, such as congestive heart failure or tuberculosis
  • Get regular check-ups with your healthcare provider

7. Conclusion

In conclusion, right-sided pleural effusion is a condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space on the right side of the chest. It can be caused by a variety of underlying conditions, including congestive heart failure, lung cancer, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, tuberculosis, and others. Symptoms of pleural effusion can include shortness of breath, chest pain, coughing, and fatigue.

Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests and thoracentesis. Treatment options include thoracentesis, pleurodesis, surgery, and medications, depending on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms. Preventing pleural effusion involves addressing underlying medical conditions and avoiding risk factors.

What are the 3 Major Causes of Pneumonia?

Pneumonia is a common and potentially serious respiratory infection that affects millions of people worldwide. It can range from mild to severe, and in some cases, it can be life-threatening. Understanding the causes of pneumonia is crucial in preventing and managing this condition. In this comprehensive article, we will explore the three major causes of pneumonia, delving into the details of each and shedding light on the importance of awareness and prevention.

I. Bacterial Pneumonia

Bacterial pneumonia is one of the most common forms of pneumonia and is primarily caused by various bacteria. It can affect individuals of all ages, and its severity can vary widely.

A. Definition

Bacterial pneumonia is a type of lung infection caused by bacteria. When bacteria invade the lungs, they can cause inflammation and infection in the air sacs, leading to pneumonia. The condition can affect one or both lungs.

B. Major Culprits

Several types of bacteria are known to cause bacterial pneumonia. These include:

  1. Streptococcus pneumoniae: This bacterium is one of the leading causes of bacterial pneumonia. It can also lead to other respiratory infections like sinusitis and bronchitis.
  2. Haemophilus influenzae: While it can cause various respiratory infections, Haemophilus influenzae is a common culprit in pneumonia, particularly in children and adults with weakened immune systems.
  3. Legionella pneumophila: This bacterium can cause a severe form of pneumonia known as Legionnaires’ disease. It is often associated with contaminated water sources, such as hot tubs and air conditioning systems.
  4. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Mycoplasma pneumonia is commonly referred to as “walking pneumonia” due to its milder symptoms. It is often characterized by a persistent cough and can affect people of all ages.
  5. Chlamydophila pneumoniae: This bacterium is another cause of atypical pneumonia and is known to infect the respiratory tract.

C. Pathophysiology

Bacterial pneumonia occurs when pathogenic bacteria enter the lower respiratory tract. Here’s how it typically progresses:

  • The bacteria are inhaled and reach the alveoli, which are small air sacs in the lungs responsible for oxygen exchange.
  • Infection and inflammation in the alveoli lead to the accumulation of pus and other fluids, which impairs oxygen absorption.
  • This results in symptoms like cough, fever, and difficulty breathing.

D. Symptoms

The symptoms of bacterial pneumonia can vary but often include:

  • High fever
  • Persistent cough with greenish, yellow, or bloody mucus
  • Rapid, labored breathing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain, especially when coughing or inhaling deeply
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea

E. Diagnosis

Diagnosing bacterial pneumonia typically involves:

  • Physical Examination: The doctor will listen to the patient’s chest for abnormal sounds, like crackling or wheezing.
  • Chest X-ray: This helps confirm the presence of infiltrates or consolidation in the lungs.
  • Sputum Test: Analyzing a sample of mucus from the patient’s airways can help identify the causative bacteria.
  • Blood Tests: These can reveal the presence of infection and the specific bacteria responsible.

F. Treatment

The treatment of bacterial pneumonia involves several key components:

  • Antibiotics: The choice of antibiotics depends on the suspected or identified bacteria. Commonly prescribed antibiotics include amoxicillin, azithromycin, and levofloxacin.
  • Supportive Care: Rest, staying hydrated, and over-the-counter pain relievers can help alleviate symptoms.
  • Hospitalization: Severe cases, especially in older adults or individuals with compromised immune systems, may require hospitalization for intravenous antibiotics and oxygen therapy.

II. Viral Pneumonia

Viral pneumonia is another significant cause of this respiratory condition, and it is primarily driven by various viruses.

A. Definition

Viral pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by viruses rather than bacteria. Viral infections can lead to inflammation and damage in the lungs, resulting in pneumonia. This form of pneumonia can affect people of all ages but is often more severe in certain populations.

B. Major Culprits

Several viruses are known to cause viral pneumonia, including:

  1. Influenza A and B: Influenza viruses are notorious for causing seasonal flu outbreaks. They can also lead to viral pneumonia, which can be severe.
  2. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV): RSV is a common cause of respiratory infections in children and can lead to pneumonia, especially in infants.
  3. Adenoviruses: Adenoviral infections can cause a wide range of symptoms, including respiratory issues that can progress to pneumonia.
  4. Rhinoviruses: While rhinoviruses are typically associated with the common cold, they can sometimes lead to pneumonia, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems.

C. Pathophysiology

Viral pneumonia occurs when the respiratory viruses enter the lungs and initiate an inflammatory response. The key steps in the pathophysiology of viral pneumonia are as follows:

  • The virus infects the respiratory tract, often starting in the upper airways.
  • It can then progress to the lower airways and alveoli, where it causes inflammation and damage.
  • In response, the body produces mucus and immune cells, further blocking the airways.

D. Symptoms

The symptoms of viral pneumonia can be similar to bacterial pneumonia and may include:

  • High fever
  • Persistent cough with phlegm
  • Shortness of breath
  • Rapid breathing
  • Chest pain, especially with coughing
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Muscle aches and headaches

E. Diagnosis

Diagnosing viral pneumonia typically involves:

  • Clinical Evaluation: A healthcare provider assesses the patient’s medical history and symptoms.
  • Chest X-ray: This can reveal the presence of infiltrates and help distinguish viral pneumonia from other types.
  • Blood Tests: These may show viral antibodies or other markers of infection.
  • Nasal or Throat Swab: A sample may be collected for laboratory testing to identify the specific virus.

F. Treatment

The treatment of viral pneumonia depends on the specific virus causing the infection:

  • Influenza: Antiviral medications like oseltamivir (Tamiflu) can help reduce the severity and duration of symptoms.
  • RSV: Supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, is often required, as there are no specific antiviral drugs for RSV.
  • Adenoviruses and Rhinoviruses: Treatment primarily involves relieving symptoms and providing supportive care.

III. Aspiration Pneumonia

Aspiration pneumonia is a unique form of pneumonia that occurs when foreign substances, such as food or stomach contents, enter the lungs and cause infection.

A. Definition

Aspiration pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by the inhalation of foreign materials into the lungs. These materials can include food particles, gastric acid, or even saliva.

B. Causes

Several situations and conditions can lead to the aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs:

  1. Inhalation of Gastric Acid: This can occur during episodes of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or when a person vomits and inhales stomach contents.
  2. Inhalation of Food Particles: When food particles enter the airways instead of the esophagus, it can lead to aspiration pneumonia.
  3. Aspiration During Surgery or Dental Procedures: Medical procedures that require sedation, intubation, or dental work can sometimes lead to aspiration if the protective reflexes are impaired.

C. Risk Factors

Certain factors increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, including:

  • Age: Elderly individuals are more prone to impaired swallowing and aspiration.
  • Neurological Conditions: Conditions like stroke, dementia, or Parkinson’s disease can affect swallowing and increase the risk of aspiration.
  • Impaired Consciousness: When a person is under the influence of alcohol or drugs, they are more likely to aspirate.

D. Symptoms

Aspiration pneumonia may present with symptoms different from other forms of pneumonia. Common symptoms include:

  • Sudden onset of cough, often with foul-smelling sputum
  • Difficulty breathing, particularly when inhaling
  • Rapid breathing
  • Chest pain
  • Fever
  • Confusion or altered mental status

E. Diagnosis

Diagnosing aspiration pneumonia typically involves:

  • Imaging Studies: Chest X-rays or CT scans can reveal infiltrates and the presence of aspirated material.
  • Bronchoscopy: This procedure allows direct visualization of the airways and can help confirm the presence of aspirated material.
  • Clinical Evaluation: The patient’s medical history and symptoms play a crucial role in diagnosis.

F. Treatment

The treatment of aspiration pneumonia involves addressing the underlying cause and managing the infection. Key components of treatment include:

  • Antibiotics: Prescribed to combat the infection caused by aspirated materials.
  • Supportive Care: This includes maintaining oxygen levels and addressing any underlying conditions that contributed to aspiration.
  • Swallowing Rehabilitation: For individuals at risk of recurrent aspiration, swallowing therapy may be recommended.

IV. Prevention

Preventing pneumonia, regardless of its cause, is of utmost importance. Several strategies can help reduce the risk of developing this respiratory condition.

A. Vaccination

Vaccination is a crucial preventive measure for pneumonia, as it can protect against some of the most common causative agents.

  • Pneumococcal Vaccine: This vaccine protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae, one of the leading bacterial causes of pneumonia. There are different types of pneumococcal vaccines for various age groups.
  • Influenza Vaccine: Getting an annual flu shot can prevent influenza, which is a common precursor to viral pneumonia.

B. Good Hygiene

Practicing good hygiene can reduce the risk of infections, including those that can lead to pneumonia.

  • Handwashing: Regular handwashing with soap and water can help prevent the spread of infectious agents.
  • Respiratory Hygiene: Covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing can prevent the spread of respiratory viruses.

C. Avoiding Smoking

Smoking is a major risk factor for respiratory infections, including pneumonia.

  • Cigarette Smoking: Avoiding cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke can significantly lower the risk of pneumonia.



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