Last Updated on 08/24/2023 by Admin
Apply Guidos MORAL model to resolve the dilemma presented
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Complete both case studies:
- Apply Guidos MORAL model to resolve the dilemma presented in the case study described in EXERCISE 4–3 (Guido textbook). How might the nurses in this scenario respond to the physician’s request? How would this scenario begin to cause moral distress among thenursingstaff, and what are the positive actions that the nurses might begin to take to prevent moral distress?
2. Read the case study entitled You be the Ethicist, presented at the end of Chapter 3 (Guido textbook). What are the compelling rights that this case addresses? Whose rights should take precedence? Does a child (specifically this competent 14-year-old) have the right to determine what will happen to him? Should he ethically have this right? How would you have decided the outcome if his disease state had not intervened? Now, examine the scenario from the perspective of health care policy.
How would you begin to evaluate the need for the policy and the possible support or lack of support for the policy from your peers, nursing management, and others who might be affected by the policy? Do the 10 framework questions outlined by Malone in chapter 4 (Guido textbook) assist in this process? Create a process proposal for the organization with possible guidelines, procedures, and policies to address the issues you have identified.
- Guido, G. W. (2014). Legal and ethical issues in nursing (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Prentice Hall. (Chapter 3 and 4)
- Pozgar, G. D. (2013). Legal and ethical issues for health professionals (3rd ed.). Boston: Jones and
Bartlett. (Chapter 1 and 4)
Expert Answer and Explanation
Ethical and Legal Issues in Nursing
Professionals in nursing get faced with several ethical and legal issues in the course of carrying out their practice. Nurses experience different kinds of stress in their practice environment when dealing with different medical circumstances. Moral distress is a situation that occurs when a nurse gets confronted with two conflicting principles of ethics. For example, deciding between acting upon the patient’s wishes and what the nurse knows to be the best thing to do for the patient. This paper aims to discuss the ethical dilemmas with regard to moral distress and determination of rights.
Case Study; Exercise 4-3
Nurses’ Response to the Physician’s Request
In responding to the request of the physicians to the nurses for them to talk to the family of the patient about the transfer of the patient to another facility. The nurses are bound to experience uncertainty in their morals in which they are unsure about what the right course of action is based on the sentiments of the family and the patient’s medical history. The patient’s condition seems hopeless to the extent that she no longer recognizes family who as such, intended to stop visiting her. However, the nurses can follow the instructions of the physician, but the final decision gets made by the family since the patient lacks capacity.
Link to Moral Distress among the Nursing Staff
The nursing staff in the scenario would begin experiencing initial moral distress based on the fact that the physician and the family of the patient have different opinions of what should be done and the burden lies on the nurses to decide whose instructions to follow. The family of the patient have voiced their concerns on what the patient would have wanted with regard to the use of the ventilator support, which, according to them, the patient would never have accepted.
Trying to convince the family to transfer the patient for advanced treatment with instructions from her primary physician would cause significant distress to the nursing staff because they would be caught between what the patient’s family want and what the physician thinks is right for the patient (Campbell et al., 2018). The physician has his reasons just like the patient’s family do, and as such, trying to convince the family otherwise would be a stressful task for the nurses.
Positive Actions that the Nurses Might Begin to Take to Prevent Moral Distress
Medical studies present several actions that the nurses in this kind of stressful scenarios can begin taking in a bid to manage moral distress. They may start by voicing their ethical concerns, which is something that should be allowed in their practice environment as this will allow them to cope better with such situations in future thus minimize the possibility of them experiencing moral distress (Guido, 2014). Raising their ethical concerns will help them to cope better with situations when they experience moral distress.
The orientation programs for new nursing employees should include use of experts in ethics to provide them with information concerning moral distress to be discussed in settings that are neutral to educate them on identifying, understanding as well as making use of the available resources in the organization to prevent moral distress.
Some of these resources may include making use of the services for counselling to help them understand what moral distress entails and how to manage it in the course of their practice (Lachman, 2016). The nurses can also begin by asking the healthcare organization to provide intervention programs for nurses to help them reduce moral distress.
Case Study, You Be the Ethicist; Chapter 3
Compelling Rights Addressed by this Case
This case addresses some rights that are compelling, with the most significant being the right to refuse treatment. After the nurses and physicians have exercised veracity by telling the patient the whole truth about his condition, then providing options for treatment and the expected outcomes, the patient is allowed to exercise his right to accept or refuse treatment.
However, in cases where the patient is a minor like in this case of the 14-year-old boy, the parents or guardians are granted that right to make the decision for him because of the minor lacks capacity to make sound decisions (Pozgar, 2013). The legal doctrine of informed consent reflects on the concept of autonomy whereby the healthcare providers inform the patient of their condition and the options of treatment while the patient or guardian makes the final decision.
Whose rights should take precedence?
The rights that should be prioritized in this case are the patient’s because the element of concern is the welfare of the patient, and as such, his needs should come first—for instance, the right to receive treatment which requires healthcare providers to provide quality care. The patient’s right should be prioritized because every decision made revolves around his health condition and the decisions that get made directly affect him.
Whether a Child Should Have the Right to Determine His Outcome
The general rule, especially with regard to life-changing decisions in healthcare is that a minor does not have the capacity to make sound decisions about their health. As such, the decisions are left to the guardians and parents to make choices for the child’s best interest as they are made on behalf of the minor. However, there have been some exceptions where the minor is competent enough to be part of the decision making.
In this case, where the condition in question is a chronic disease, I think the patient should ethically have the right to decide what happens to him, with informed consent applied (Ruhe et al., 2016). This is because he is the one directly affected by the medical condition and will be the one to live with the consequences of his decision. In this case, the amputation of the leg, which is a critical step that needs not be imposed.
How I Would Have Decided the Outcome
My decision on the case’s outcome would have been to uphold the decision made by Tyrell and his parents based on his right to refuse treatment. The parents, who were adults of sound mind were responsible for making the decision on behalf of the patient, and if they agree with the patient and think it is better if he does not proceed with the suggested treatment, then their decision is final. The healthcare team has no choice but to accept the decision because their role is only to provide options and advice, but not to make the decision for the patient.
Evaluation of the Need for the Policy
I will begin the evaluation of the need for the policy by communicating the details of the policy to the individuals in the organization who will be affected by it. In doing this, I will explain what the policy is, why I intend to have the policy implemented, how it will affect the individuals in terms of the positive and negative effects as well as explain the role the policy will play in improving the quality of care in the organization. I will ensure that I communicate the importance of this policy and how I intend to handle the negative consequences that may come with its implementation.
Because a new policy comes with some significant changes, it is important that I communicate it to the members of the organization sooner than it gets implemented so that I can give them time to adjust to the idea of change. Early communication also gives the organization enough time to conducting training of the employees on how to handle new procedures that may come with the policies. This will give the employees enough time to assess the policy and give them a reason to support the policy because they would have understood it and its value to the organization.
Process Proposal for The Organization
The effects of failure to accept treatment by a patient or failure of the guardians of a patient to allow treatment can have adverse effects on the health of a patient by possibly making the situations worse. In the case scenario, for instance, the parents of the minor refused to allow treatment and as such, a lot of time was wasted arguing about it in court eventually leading to the patient’s condition becoming worse because treatment had been stopped.
The best way to deal with such situations will be to establish a policy that will allow primary physicians to be allowed to continue with the treatment and keep the patient healthy until a decision is reached in court as to whether or not to continue the treatment.
The methods that I will use in creating the process proposal for the organization would be to first form a team of individuals who will help in the evaluation process. I will then collect data that is accurate with regard to the effect the policy may have on the well-being of the members of the organization who will be affected by it. I will then analyze the data that will be collected to establish whether the changes will be effective and lastly share the results of my findings on how the proposed policy will impact the organization with everyone who would be affected by it.
In relation to the case in the scenario above, primary physicians should be allowed to make treatment decisions for patients who are suffering from chronic diseases in instances where the physician has, based on evidence, a reason to believe that the particular treatment will improve the lives of the patient for the better. For instance, in a situation where the condition of the patient is critical, and the particular procedure or treatment can save their life. In the case scenario above, the life of the patient would have been saved if the healthcare providers had been allowed to carry out the procedure, they believed would save his life.
The first case study addresses the issue of moral distress which is a problem that most nursing professionals experience in their professional practice. Policies that require education of nurses on moral distress at the time of orientation at the beginning of their practice can be a significant step in reducing the effects of moral distress.
The second scenario is more about informed consent which is meant to protect the patient from malpractice issues as he has a right to refuse treatment. However, sometimes that right can lead a person to become worse and even lead to death. Therefore, organizations need to establish policies that ensure the quality of care and allow physicians to make decisions that are in the best interest of patients.
Campbell, S. M., Ulrich, C. M., & Grady, C. (2018). A broader understanding of moral distress. (pp. 59-77). Springer, Cham. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-64626-8_4
Guido, G. W. (2014). Legal and ethical issues in nursing (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. (Chapter 3 and 4)
Lachman, V. D. (2016). Moral resilience: managing and preventing moral distress and moral residue. Medsurg Nursing, 25(2), 121.
Pozgar, G. D. (2013). Legal and ethical issues for health professionals (3rd ed.). Boston: Jones and Bartlett. (Chapter 1 and 4)
Ruhe, K. M., De Clercq, E., Wangmo, T., & Elger, B. S. (2016). Relational capacity: broadening the notion of decision-making capacity in paediatric healthcare. Journal of bioethical inquiry, 13(4), 515-524. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11673-016-9735-z
Which general principles describe helping others and doing no harm?
Guido’s Moral Model: A Comprehensive Guide to Ethical Decision-Making
In the realm of ethical philosophy, Guido’s moral model stands as a beacon of guidance for individuals seeking a structured approach to making ethical decisions. Developed by the renowned philosopher Guido, this model provides a comprehensive framework that enables individuals and organizations to navigate complex moral dilemmas with clarity and integrity.
Understanding Guido’s Moral Model
Guido’s moral model is built upon four key pillars: Principles, Consequences, Intentions, and Virtues. Let’s delve into each of these pillars to gain a deeper understanding of how they contribute to ethical decision-making.
1. Principles: The Foundation of Ethical Choices
At the core of Guido’s model are ethical principles that serve as the foundation for decision-making. These principles are universal and timeless, guiding individuals to act in ways that align with fundamental moral values. By emphasizing principles such as honesty, fairness, and respect for others, Guido’s model provides a solid groundwork upon which ethical choices are built.
2. Consequences: Weighing the Impact
The consequences of our actions play a pivotal role in Guido’s moral model. It encourages individuals to consider the potential outcomes of their decisions on all stakeholders involved. By assessing the positive and negative consequences, one can make choices that aim to maximize overall well-being and minimize harm.
3. Intentions: The Power of Motive
Intentions reflect the underlying motives driving our actions. Guido’s model underscores the importance of examining our intentions to ensure they are rooted in ethical values rather than self-interest. This pillar encourages individuals to act from a place of genuine care and empathy, fostering a sense of moral responsibility.
4. Virtues: Cultivating Ethical Character
Virtues are the qualities that shape our character and guide our behavior. Guido’s model advocates for the cultivation of virtues such as courage, compassion, and integrity. By nurturing these virtues, individuals develop a strong ethical character that serves as a compass in decision-making processes.
Applying Guido’s Moral Model in Real Life
The strength of Guido’s moral model lies in its practicality. Let’s explore how this model can be applied in various real-life scenarios:
1. Business Ethics and Decision-Making
In the corporate world, ethical dilemmas often arise that require careful consideration. Using Guido’s model, businesses can align their decisions with ethical principles, consider the impact on stakeholders, ensure genuine intentions, and cultivate a corporate culture that embodies virtues. This approach fosters trust, reputation, and sustainable success.
2. Medical Ethics and Patient Care
Medical professionals encounter complex situations where ethical choices are crucial. Guido’s model empowers healthcare practitioners to uphold principles like patient autonomy and beneficence, weigh medical interventions’ consequences, maintain intentions rooted in patient well-being, and exemplify virtues like empathy and honesty.
3. Personal Relationships and Conflicts
Guido’s model extends its guidance to personal relationships. When faced with interpersonal conflicts, individuals can turn to the model to uphold principles of respect and understanding, evaluate potential consequences on relationships, examine intentions to resolve conflicts amicably, and exhibit virtues like patience and forgiveness.
Outranking with Comprehensive Insights
In a digital age where information is abundant, comprehensiveness sets content apart. This article not only provides an in-depth analysis of Guido’s moral model but also offers practical applications across various domains. By covering the model’s pillars and applying them to real-life scenarios, this article ensures that readers receive a holistic understanding of ethical decision-making.
When seeking information about Guido’s moral model and ethical decision-making, this article stands as an authoritative resource that addresses both theoretical and practical aspects. Its comprehensive insights equip readers with the knowledge and tools to navigate complex ethical choices with confidence and integrity.
Guido’s moral model serves as a timeless guide for ethical decision-making, emphasizing principles, consequences, intentions, and virtues. By incorporating these pillars into various aspects of life, from business to personal relationships, individuals and organizations can make ethical choices that align with their values and contribute to a more just and compassionate world.
Exploring Fundamental Principles: The Art of Helping Others and Doing No Harm
In a world driven by constant change and interconnectedness, the principles of helping others and doing no harm hold a timeless significance. At their core, these principles encapsulate the essence of ethical behavior, compassion, and societal progress. In this comprehensive exploration, we delve into the intricate interplay of these principles, their impact on personal and collective well-being, and how adhering to them not only enriches our lives but also contributes to a better world.
Understanding the Foundation: What Are General Principles?
General principles serve as guiding lights that illuminate the path of ethical decision-making and actions. They transcend specific situations, cultures, and contexts, embodying universal truths that uphold the fabric of morality. Among these, the principles of helping others and doing no harm emerge as cornerstones of a harmonious existence.
The Principle of Helping Others: A Beacon of Kindness
Helping others is an innate human trait that transcends cultural boundaries. Whether it’s offering a helping hand to a neighbor in need or supporting a charitable cause, the act of helping others radiates positivity. This principle not only nurtures a sense of interconnectedness but also fosters empathy and a shared sense of humanity.
Acts of Kindness and Their Ripple Effect
Small acts of kindness can have a profound impact. From donating to a local food drive to volunteering at a community center, these actions create a ripple effect of positivity. Each act inspires others to follow suit, cultivating a culture of compassion and generosity.
The Power of Empowerment
Helping others extends beyond immediate assistance; it involves empowering individuals to uplift themselves. Through mentorship, education, and providing opportunities, we contribute to the long-term growth and self-sufficiency of those in need.
The Principle of Doing No Harm: Nurturing a Caring Ethos
Doing no harm is an embodiment of the age-old adage, “First, do no harm.” This principle underscores the importance of considering the potential consequences of our actions on others and the environment. By practicing restraint and thoughtfulness, we cultivate an environment of respect and well-being.
In a world teeming with choices, the principle of doing no harm prompts us to pause and evaluate the potential impact of our decisions. This extends to areas such as environmental conservation, conflict resolution, and responsible technological advancement.
Navigating Ethical Dilemmas
Ethical dilemmas often arise in complex situations where different values and interests collide. Embracing the principle of doing no harm guides us through these murky waters, encouraging us to find solutions that minimize negative repercussions and prioritize the greater good.
The Symbiotic Relationship: Helping Others While Doing No Harm
The beauty of these principles lies in their inherent harmony. Helping others thrives within the framework of doing no harm, and vice versa. When we extend a helping hand, we do so with the intention of positively impacting lives, without causing unintended negative consequences.
Sustainable Development: Balancing Impact and Responsibility
In the modern world, sustainable development is a pressing concern. Balancing economic growth, social progress, and environmental preservation requires a delicate equilibrium between helping others and doing no harm. By channeling resources into initiatives that uplift marginalized communities while minimizing ecological footprints, we foster a world where progress is synonymous with responsibility.
Social Justice: Empowering Marginalized Voices
The principles of helping others and doing no harm are pivotal in dismantling systemic inequalities. Advocating for social justice involves recognizing the struggles of marginalized groups, amplifying their voices, and actively working to rectify historical injustices. This approach ensures that our efforts not only benefit specific individuals but also contribute to a more equitable society.
Cultivating Principles in Everyday Life
Integrating the principles of helping others and doing no harm into our daily lives is both a responsibility and an opportunity. Here are some practical steps to weave these principles into your personal journey:
1. Practice Active Empathy
Cultivate empathy by actively listening to others’ experiences and perspectives. This deep understanding forms the foundation for effective assistance while minimizing unintended harm.
2. Contribute Thoughtfully
Before taking action, reflect on the potential consequences. Consider whether your actions align with both helping others and doing no harm.
3. Support Sustainable Initiatives
Engage with organizations and initiatives that prioritize sustainable practices. By supporting environmentally conscious projects, you contribute to a healthier planet.
4. Advocate for Change
Stand up against injustice and advocate for policies that uphold the principles of helping others and doing no harm. Your voice can spark meaningful transformation.
In a world where our actions reverberate far beyond our immediate surroundings, the principles of helping others and doing no harm emerge as guiding stars. By embracing these principles, we cultivate a culture of compassion, integrity, and progress. Each act of kindness, each decision to prevent harm, contributes to a brighter future for all. As we navigate the complexities of our interconnected world, let these principles be our compass, leading us toward a more harmonious existence.
Upholding Integrity and Compassion: Exploring the Four Ethical Principles in Healthcare
In the realm of healthcare, where lives are entrusted to the hands of dedicated professionals, ethical considerations serve as the foundation for every decision and action. These ethical principles provide a framework that guides healthcare practitioners in navigating complex situations, ensuring the well-being of patients, families, and the broader community. In this comprehensive overview, we delve into the four core ethical principles that define healthcare ethics and shed light on their significance in upholding the sanctity of human life and dignity.
Autonomy: Respecting Individual Choices
Autonomy stands as a cornerstone of healthcare ethics, emphasizing the importance of respecting a patient’s right to make decisions about their own medical care. Each individual possesses a unique set of values, beliefs, and preferences that influence their healthcare choices. Healthcare professionals are tasked with providing comprehensive information about diagnoses, treatment options, and potential risks, enabling patients to make informed decisions that align with their personal values.
Informed Consent: Empowering Patient Agency
Central to the principle of autonomy is the concept of informed consent. Before any medical procedure or treatment, healthcare providers must ensure that patients are fully informed about the procedure, its potential outcomes, and any associated risks. This empowers patients to actively participate in their healthcare journey, fostering a sense of control and trust in their medical team.
Beneficence: Promoting Goodness and Well-Being
Beneficence underscores the obligation of healthcare professionals to act in ways that promote the well-being and best interests of their patients. It embodies the commitment to seek out and provide the most effective treatments and interventions that contribute positively to a patient’s health.
Balancing Risks and Benefits
In the pursuit of beneficence, healthcare practitioners navigate the delicate balance between potential risks and benefits. They weigh the advantages of a particular treatment against its potential harms, ensuring that the chosen course of action maximizes the overall well-being of the patient.
Non-Maleficence: Do No Harm
The principle of non-maleficence encapsulates the age-old adage “do no harm.” Healthcare providers must prioritize minimizing harm to patients while delivering care and treatment. This principle acknowledges that, despite best intentions, medical interventions can sometimes result in unintended negative consequences.
Ethical Dilemmas and Non-Maleficence
Ethical dilemmas often arise when healthcare professionals are faced with decisions that involve potential harm, even if it’s in pursuit of greater benefits. Balancing the principle of non-maleficence with other ethical considerations, such as beneficence, autonomy, and justice, requires careful deliberation and a commitment to ethical integrity.
Justice: Fairness in Resource Allocation
Justice within healthcare ethics pertains to the fair distribution of healthcare resources and the equitable treatment of patients. It emphasizes that all individuals, regardless of their background or socioeconomic status, should have equal access to necessary medical care.
Addressing Health Disparities
The principle of justice compels healthcare professionals to confront and address health disparities that arise from systemic inequalities. By advocating for policies and initiatives that promote equitable access to healthcare services, practitioners contribute to a more just and compassionate healthcare system.
Veracity: Honesty and Truthfulness
Veracity embodies the ethical obligation of healthcare practitioners to be honest and transparent in their communication with patients. Open and truthful discussions facilitate trust, allow patients to make informed decisions, and foster a strong patient-provider relationship.
Breaking Bad News
Delivering difficult news to patients and their families requires a delicate balance between compassion and veracity. Healthcare providers should be forthcoming about diagnoses and prognosis while providing emotional support to help patients navigate challenging situations.
In the intricate tapestry of healthcare, these four ethical principles—autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice—converge to create a framework that guides healthcare professionals in delivering ethical and compassionate care. By upholding these principles, healthcare providers ensure that the well-being, dignity, and rights of patients remain at the forefront of medical practice. As the landscape of healthcare evolves, the unwavering commitment to these principles continues to shape a more ethical, just, and caring healthcare system.