[2023] Compare U.S. presidential agenda priorities. Evaluate ways that administrative agencies help address healthcare issues. Analyze how healthcare issues get on administrative agendas

Compare U.S. presidential agenda priorities. Evaluate ways that administrative agencies help address healthcare issues.

Compare U.S. presidential agenda priorities. Evaluate ways that administrative agencies help address healthcare issues. Analyze how healthcare issues get on administrative agendas

Compare U.S. presidential agenda priorities. Evaluate ways that administrative

  • Compare U.S. presidential agenda priorities
  • Evaluate ways that administrative agencies help address healthcare issues
  • Analyze how healthcare issues get on administrative agendas
  • Identify champions or sponsors of healthcare issues
  • Create fact sheets for communicating with policymakers or legislators
  • Justify the role of the nurse in agenda-setting for healthcare issues

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define the following healthcare delivery system components, what are the key components of the us health system, role of hospital in healthcare delivery system

types of healthcare delivery models, modern and traditional health care delivery system, characteristics of health care delivery system

introduction of healthcare delivery system, what is modern healthcare delivery

What Are the Key Components of the US Health System


The US health system is a complex network of healthcare providers, insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, and various other entities. Understanding the key components of this system is crucial for comprehending how healthcare is delivered and accessed in the United States. This article provides an in-depth exploration of the different components that make up the US health system, highlighting their significance and role in delivering healthcare to the population.

Overview of the US Health System

Before delving into the key components, let’s briefly discuss the overall structure of the US health system. Unlike some other countries with a centralized or government-funded healthcare system, the US relies heavily on a combination of private and public entities to provide healthcare services. This unique arrangement often leads to complexities and challenges in ensuring universal access to quality healthcare for all citizens.

Key Components of the US Health System

3.1 Healthcare Providers

One of the primary components of the US health system is healthcare providers. These include hospitals, physicians, nurses, and other medical professionals who deliver medical care to patients. Let’s explore some of these components in more detail:

3.1.1 Hospitals

Hospitals play a vital role in the US health system, providing a range of services from emergency care to specialized treatments. They are essential for handling critical cases, performing surgeries, and offering specialized medical care to patients.

3.1.2 Physicians

Physicians, including primary care doctors and specialists, are the backbone of the US healthcare system. They diagnose and treat patients, prescribe medications, and coordinate healthcare services. Physicians can work independently, in group practices, or as part of healthcare systems.

3.1.3 Nurses

Nurses are integral to the delivery of healthcare in the US. They provide direct patient care, administer medications, assist in surgeries, and educate patients on managing their health. Nurses work in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities.

3.2 Health Insurance

Another critical component of the US health system is health insurance. It serves as a financial mechanism to help individuals and families cover their healthcare costs. There are two primary types of health insurance in the US:

3.2.1 Private Health Insurance

Private health insurance is provided by private companies, typically through employer-sponsored plans or individual policies. It offers different levels of coverage and requires individuals to pay premiums, deductibles, and co-pays. Private insurance plans can vary widely in terms of benefits and cost-sharing requirements.

3.2.2 Government Health Insurance

The US government provides health insurance programs for specific populations. The two most significant government programs are Medicare, which covers older adults and people with certain disabilities, and Medicaid, which provides coverage for low-income individuals and families. These programs play a crucial role in ensuring access to healthcare for vulnerable populations.

3.3 Pharmaceutical Industry

The pharmaceutical industry plays a vital role in the US health system by researching, developing, and manufacturing medications. Pharmaceutical companies produce drugs that treat various conditions, ranging from common ailments to complex diseases. The availability and affordability of medications are important factors in ensuring optimal healthcare outcomes.

3.4 Public Health

Public health efforts focus on promoting and protecting the health of communities and populations. This component of the US health system encompasses disease prevention, health promotion, surveillance, and response to public health emergencies. Public health initiatives target issues such as immunization, infectious disease control, environmental health, and health education.

3.5 Medical Research and Innovation

Medical research and innovation drive advancements in healthcare and contribute to the overall improvement of the US health system. Research institutions, universities, and pharmaceutical companies collaborate to develop new treatments, therapies, and medical technologies. These advancements have the potential to enhance patient outcomes and reduce healthcare costs in the long run.

Challenges in the US Health System

Despite its strengths, the US health system faces several challenges that impact the delivery and accessibility of healthcare:

4.1 Cost of Healthcare

The cost of healthcare in the US is significantly higher compared to many other countries. High healthcare expenses can create financial burdens for individuals, limit access to care, and contribute to health disparities.

4.2 Access to Healthcare

Access to healthcare is a persistent challenge in the US. Factors such as insurance coverage gaps, provider shortages in certain areas, and socioeconomic disparities can hinder individuals’ ability to obtain timely and affordable healthcare services.

4.3 Health Disparities

Health disparities exist across different populations in the US, particularly among racial and ethnic groups. These disparities result from various factors, including socioeconomic status, limited access to healthcare, and structural inequalities. Addressing these disparities is crucial for achieving health equity.


The US health system comprises various components, including healthcare providers, health insurance, the pharmaceutical industry, public health efforts, and medical research. Understanding these key components helps us grasp the complexities and challenges within the system. By addressing issues such as cost, access, and disparities, there is a potential to improve the overall functioning and effectiveness of the US health system.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

  1. What role do hospitals play in the US health system? Hospitals provide critical care, perform surgeries, and offer specialized medical services.
  2. What is the difference between private and government health insurance? Private health insurance is provided by private companies, while government health insurance programs like Medicare and Medicaid cater to specific populations.
  3. How does the pharmaceutical industry contribute to the US health system? The pharmaceutical industry researches, develops, and manufactures medications that treat various conditions and contribute to better healthcare outcomes.
  4. What are some challenges in the US health system? The cost of healthcare, limited access to care, and health disparities are significant challenges faced by the US health system.
  5. What can be done to improve the US health system? Improving healthcare affordability, enhancing access, and addressing health disparities are key steps towards improving the US health system.

Types of Healthcare Delivery Models


Healthcare delivery models refer to the various approaches and structures through which healthcare services are provided to individuals and communities. These models define how healthcare professionals, institutions, and organizations interact and collaborate to deliver care. This article explores different types of healthcare delivery models, highlighting their pros and cons.

Fee-for-Service Model

The fee-for-service model is one of the traditional and widely used healthcare delivery models. In this model, healthcare providers are reimbursed based on the services they deliver to patients. Let’s examine the pros and cons of this model:


  • Flexibility: The fee-for-service model allows patients to choose their healthcare providers and services based on their needs and preferences.
  • Detailed Billing: Providers can bill for each specific service rendered, ensuring accurate reimbursement for the care delivered.
  • Incentives for Volume: This model can incentivize providers to offer more services, leading to increased revenue.


  • Fragmented Care: Fee-for-service may prioritize individual services over coordinated, holistic care, potentially leading to fragmented care delivery.
  • Incentives for Overutilization: The model’s focus on volume can incentivize unnecessary procedures and tests, driving up healthcare costs.
  • Lack of Cost Control: Fee-for-service may contribute to rising healthcare expenses as reimbursement is based on individual services rather than outcomes.

Capitation Model

The capitation model is an alternative healthcare delivery model where providers are paid a fixed amount per patient, regardless of the services rendered. Here are the pros and cons of the capitation model:


  • Emphasis on Prevention: Providers have a financial incentive to focus on preventive care, as it can reduce the need for expensive treatments and hospitalizations.
  • Coordinated Care: Capitation can encourage coordinated care among healthcare providers, improving patient outcomes and continuity of care.
  • Cost Control: This model can help control healthcare costs by incentivizing efficient and cost-effective practices.


  • Potential for Underprovision: Providers may be inclined to limit necessary care to maximize profits, potentially compromising patient health.
  • Difficulty in Risk Assessment: Accurately assessing the health risks and resource needs of a patient population can be challenging, leading to potential imbalances in reimbursement.
  • Limited Provider Choice: Capitation models often restrict patients’ choices of healthcare providers, as they are tied to specific networks or organizations.

Accountable Care Organization (ACO) Model

The Accountable Care Organization (ACO) model aims to enhance care coordination and quality while controlling costs. ACOs are networks of healthcare providers and organizations that collaborate to deliver integrated care. Let’s explore the pros and cons of the ACO model:


  • Coordinated and Integrated Care: ACOs promote collaboration among healthcare providers, ensuring seamless and coordinated care delivery.
  • Focus on Quality: ACOs emphasize quality metrics and outcomes, driving improvements in patient care and outcomes.
  • Cost Savings: By coordinating care and avoiding unnecessary procedures, ACOs aim to achieve cost savings for both patients and payers.


  • Complex Implementation: Establishing and operating an ACO can be complex, requiring coordination among multiple providers and organizations.
  • Potential for Limited Provider Choice: Patients may be limited to the providers within the ACO network, reducing their choice of healthcare professionals.
  • Financial Risks: ACOs may bear financial risks if the cost of care exceeds the allocated budget, potentially impacting their sustainability.

Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) Model

The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) model focuses on comprehensive, coordinated, and patient-centered primary care. In this model, primary care providers serve as the central point of contact for patients’ healthcare needs. Here are the pros and cons of the PCMH model:


  • Comprehensive Care: PCMH provides comprehensive and continuous care, addressing the overall health needs of patients.
  • Patient-Centered Approach: This model emphasizes patient engagement, shared decision-making, and personalized care plans.
  • Care Coordination: PCMH promotes care coordination among primary care providers and specialists, ensuring seamless transitions and reducing duplication of services.


  • Implementation Challenges: Transitioning to a PCMH model can be challenging, requiring changes in workflows, technology, and care delivery processes.
  • Time and Resource Intensive: Providing comprehensive and coordinated care under the PCMH model can require additional time and resources from primary care providers.
  • Financial Sustainability: The additional resources and support needed for PCMH implementation may pose financial challenges for smaller practices.

Telemedicine Model

The telemedicine model leverages technology to deliver healthcare services remotely, allowing patients to access care without physical visits to healthcare facilities. Let’s explore the pros and cons of the telemedicine model:


  • Increased Access: Telemedicine enables patients to access healthcare services regardless of geographic location, improving access for underserved populations.
  • Convenience: Patients can receive care remotely, reducing the need for travel and minimizing waiting times.
  • Cost Savings: Telemedicine can lead to cost savings for patients by eliminating travel expenses and reducing non-urgent emergency department visits.


  • Technological Barriers: Limited access to technology or reliable internet connectivity can hinder patients’ ability to engage in telemedicine services.
  • Scope Limitations: Certain medical conditions and procedures may require in-person visits, limiting the applicability of telemedicine.
  • Privacy and Security Concerns: The exchange of personal health information in telemedicine raises privacy and security concerns that need to be addressed.


Healthcare delivery models play a crucial role in shaping how care is provided and experienced by patients. Fee-for-service, capitation, accountable care organizations, patient-centered medical homes, and telemedicine are among the various models that offer unique advantages and face specific challenges. By understanding these different models, healthcare stakeholders can work towards designing and implementing systems that prioritize quality, access, and cost-effective care.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

  1. What is the fee-for-service model? The fee-for-service model reimburses healthcare providers based on the specific services they deliver to patients.
  2. How does the capitation model work? In the capitation model, providers receive a fixed amount per patient, regardless of the services rendered.
  3. What is an accountable care organization (ACO)? An accountable care organization is a network of healthcare providers and organizations that collaborate to deliver coordinated care and control costs.
  4. What is a patient-centered medical home (PCMH)? A patient-centered medical home is a primary care model that focuses on comprehensive, coordinated, and patient-centered care.
  5. What is telemedicine? Telemedicine refers to the use of technology to deliver healthcare services remotely, allowing patients to access care without physical visits to healthcare facilities.




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