[ANSWERED 2023] Describe the effect of extremely low birth weight babies on the family and community

Describe the effect of extremely low birth weight babies

Describe the effect of extremely low birth weight babies on the family and community. Consider short-term and long-term impacts, socioeconomic implications, the need for ongoing care, and comorbidities associated with prematurity. Explain how disparities relative to ethnic and cultural groups may contribute to low-birth-weight babies. Identify one support service within your community to assist with preterm infants and their families and explain how the service adequately addresses the needs of the community or a population in your community. Provide the link to the resource in your post.

Describe the effect of extremely low birth weight babies on the family and community. Consider short-term and long-term impacts, socioeconomic implications

Expert Answer and Explanation

Effects of Extremely Low Birth Weight Babies on Family and Community

Maternal and child health is one of the most crucial factors that determine the quality of life of individuals. Low birth weight babies are those born with less than 2.5kg. Some of the reasons for low birth weight include the presence of a condition in mothers called intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). One of the effects of low birth weight is the idea of children being born earlier than normal (Vinturache et al., 2016).

Babies with small bodies have a hard time fighting infection, as their immune cells are not constantly nourished. There also socioeconomic problems that may be associated with low birth weight, which includes but is not limited to the time and resource spending that the family or community may have to spend on the health of such babies.

How Disparities Relative to Ethnic and Cultural Groups may contribute to Low Birth Weight Babies

Some ethnic and cultural communities are more susceptible to IUGR, which makes it easy for their babies to experience low birth weight. Also, the types of food eaten in a community could affect maternal health and influence low birth weight.

Support Service in My Community to Assist in Pre-term Infants

There are several programs in Mississippi set to prevent premature births as well as infant mortality. Among these programs is the SIDS Prevention Program. The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is associated with things such as low birth weight and the inability of the mothers to take care of their young born who are not normal weight (Duncan & Byard, 2018). The program is efficient because it equips mothers with the knowledge of effectively managing their lives before, during, and after pregnancy.


Vinturache, A. E., Gyamfi-Bannerman, C., Hwang, J., Mysorekar, I. U., Jacobsson, B., & Collaborative, T. P. B. I. (2016, April). Maternal micro biome–a pathway to preterm birth. In Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine (Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 94-99). WB Saunders.

Duncan, J. R., & Byard, R. W. (Eds.). (2018). SIDS Sudden infant and early childhood death: The past, the present and the future. University of Adelaide Press.

Select an issue from the following list

Topic 1 DQ 2

Consider the following patient scenario:

A mother comes in with 9-month-old girl. The infant is 68.5cm in length (25th percentile per CDC growth chart), weighs 6.75kg (5th percentile per CDC growth chart), and has a head circumference of 43cm (25th percentile per CDC growth chart).

Describe the developmental markers a nurse should assess for a 9-month-old female infant. Discuss the recommendations you would give the mother. Explain why these recommendations are based on evidence-based practice.

Expert Answer and Explanation

Health Assessment for Infant

For a 9-month female infant at 25th percentile of height and head circumference, yet only in the 5th percentile in terms of weight demystifies that the infant is underweight. The CDC provides essential developmental markers that a nurse should consider when assessing the nine-month-old female infant (CDC, 2019). For instance, at the age of 9 months, the infant ought to have developed social and emotional markers such as being afraid of strangers, recognizing favorite toys, and being clingy to familiar adults.

Communication makers include the ability to copy sound or gestures, use finders to point, and understanding “no.” In terms of the cognitive and physical development, the infant should be able to watch the path of a falling object, put items in mouth, move objects from one hand to the other, sit without support, crawling, and standing while holding on to something (CDC, 2019). The assessment can also include the nutritional and dieting aspect of the infant.

As a nurse, I would recommend improvements regarding nutrition and diet, increased movements, and mental alertness. The recommendation is in light of the infant’s underweight appearance. I would first discuss with the mother the importance of a proper diet and nutritional value to the growth of the baby both physically and mentally (Green, 2018).

I will also inquire about the breastfeeding routines if the infant is being given other formulas that improve their growth. It is essential for the mother to comprehend the relevance of breastfeeding and the type of food that an infant can begin to eat after the six months following the delivery. It is also essential to offer the mother nutrition awareness materials such as handouts so that she can refer and offer the child with appropriate meals for weight gain.


CDC. (2019). What developmental milestones is your 9-month-old reaching? Retrieved 18 May 2020, from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/milestones-9mo.html

Green, S. (2018). Health assessment: Foundations for effective practice. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs434vn/health-assessment-foundations-for-effective-practice/v1.1/

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The Effects of Extremely Low Birth Weight Babies on the Family and Community

When a baby is born with an extremely low birth weight (ELBW), it can have significant effects on not just the baby, but also on the family and the community as a whole. ELBW babies are those that weigh less than 2.2 pounds (1 kg) at birth, and their chances of survival and long-term health outcomes are often precarious. In this article, we will explore the effects of ELBW babies on their families and communities.

ELBW Babies and Their Families

Emotional Impact

The birth of an ELBW baby can be a traumatic experience for the family. Parents may feel overwhelmed, anxious, and even depressed by the situation. The emotional impact can be particularly acute for mothers, who may feel guilty and blame themselves for their baby’s condition.

Financial Impact

The financial impact of an ELBW baby can be significant. The medical costs associated with the care of an ELBW baby can quickly add up, and many families may struggle to cover these expenses. In addition, parents may need to take time off work to care for their child, which can lead to lost wages and financial strain.

Social Impact

The social impact of an ELBW baby can also be significant. Parents may find it difficult to maintain relationships with friends and family, as they need to focus on caring for their child. This can lead to isolation and feelings of loneliness.

Long-Term Impact

The long-term impact of an ELBW baby on the family can be profound. Many parents report ongoing stress and anxiety, and some may experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The caregiving demands of an ELBW baby can also have an impact on the parents’ relationship, and some couples may experience relationship difficulties as a result.

ELBW Babies and the Community

Healthcare Resources

The care of ELBW babies requires a significant amount of healthcare resources. Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are often overwhelmed with the demand for care for these fragile babies, which can lead to delays in treatment and inadequate care.

Financial Resources

The cost of caring for ELBW babies is not just borne by the families, but also by the community. In many cases, the cost of care is covered by public health insurance programs, which means that taxpayers bear the financial burden.

Educational Resources

ELBW babies often require ongoing medical and developmental support, which can put a strain on educational resources. These babies may require special education services, which can be costly and resource-intensive.

Social Resources

The social impact of ELBW babies on the community can be significant. These babies often require ongoing medical care and support, which can lead to increased demand for healthcare services. This can put a strain on the community’s healthcare resources, and can also lead to higher healthcare costs for everyone.


The effects of ELBW babies on the family and community are far-reaching and significant. These babies require a significant amount of medical, financial, and social resources, and their impact can be felt for years to come. It is important for healthcare providers, policymakers, and community members to work together to support these vulnerable babies and their families.

Difference between Low Birth Weight and Preterm Baby

Low birth weight and preterm birth are two common terms used in neonatology, often interchangeably. However, there is a clear distinction between the two that is important to understand for parents, caregivers, and healthcare providers. In this article, we will delve into the difference between low birth weight and preterm birth, their causes, risks, and management.

What is Low Birth Weight?

Low birth weight (LBW) refers to a baby who is born weighing less than 2,500 grams or 5 pounds 8 ounces. LBW can occur in full-term, preterm, and post-term babies. However, LBW is most common in preterm babies, as they have not had enough time in the womb to grow and gain weight.

Causes of Low Birth Weight

There are several factors that can contribute to a baby being born with low birth weight, including:

Maternal Factors

  • Poor nutrition during pregnancy
  • Smoking or using drugs during pregnancy
  • Medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, or infections

Fetal Factors

  • Multiple gestation (twins, triplets, etc.)
  • Genetic factors
  • Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)

Risks Associated with Low Birth Weight

Babies born with low birth weight are at higher risk of several complications, including:

  • Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
  • Feeding difficulties
  • Jaundice
  • Infections
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Neurological problems
  • Developmental delays
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

Management of Low Birth Weight

The management of low birth weight depends on the cause and severity of the condition. In general, treatment may include:

  • Supportive care in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)
  • Nutritional support, such as breastfeeding or formula feeding
  • Monitoring for complications and treating them as needed
  • Medications, such as antibiotics or respiratory support

What is Preterm Birth?

Preterm birth refers to a baby who is born before 37 weeks of gestation. Preterm birth can result in low birth weight, but not all preterm babies are born with low birth weight. Preterm birth can be classified into three categories:

  • Late preterm: between 34 and 36 weeks of gestation
  • Moderately preterm: between 32 and 34 weeks of gestation
  • Very preterm: less than 32 weeks of gestation

Causes of Preterm Birth

There are several factors that can increase the risk of preterm birth, including:

Maternal Factors

  • Infections, such as urinary tract infections or bacterial vaginosis
  • Medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, or preeclampsia
  • Placental problems, such as placenta previa or placental abruption
  • Lifestyle factors, such as smoking or using drugs during pregnancy

Fetal Factors

  • Multiple gestation (twins, triplets, etc.)
  • Genetic factors
  • Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)

Risks Associated with Preterm Birth

Preterm birth, defined as birth before 37 weeks of gestation, is a major public health concern worldwide. Prematurity can result in a range of short and long-term complications for the baby, as well as increased stress and medical costs for families and healthcare systems. Some of the risks associated with preterm birth include:

  1. Respiratory distress syndrome: Premature babies often have immature lungs and may have difficulty breathing. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a common complication of preterm birth and occurs when the baby’s lungs have not yet produced enough surfactant, a substance that helps keep the air sacs in the lungs from collapsing.
  2. Infections: Preterm infants are at higher risk for developing infections due to their underdeveloped immune systems. These infections can include sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis.
  3. Hypoglycemia: Premature babies may have difficulty regulating their blood sugar levels, which can lead to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). This can cause seizures and other complications if left untreated.
  4. Hypothermia: Preterm babies may have difficulty maintaining their body temperature, which can lead to hypothermia (low body temperature). This can cause breathing problems and other complications.
  5. Brain hemorrhage: Premature babies are at increased risk for brain hemorrhage, or bleeding in the brain. This can cause long-term neurological problems, including developmental delays and cerebral palsy.
  6. Necrotizing enterocolitis: This is a serious intestinal disease that can occur in premature babies. It is characterized by inflammation and damage to the intestines, which can lead to tissue death and a perforation in the intestine.
  7. Long-term disabilities: Preterm babies are at increased risk for long-term disabilities, including cerebral palsy, vision and hearing problems, and developmental delays.
  8. Behavioral and emotional problems: Premature babies may be more likely to experience behavioral and emotional problems later in life, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and depression.

It’s important for healthcare providers to monitor preterm infants closely for these and other complications, and to provide appropriate medical care and support to reduce the risks associated with prematurity.

Management of Preterm Birth

The management of preterm birth depends on several factors, including the gestational age of the baby, the mother’s health, and the presence of any complications. Some possible approaches to the management of preterm birth include:

  1. Medications: Depending on the circumstances, medications may be used to try to delay delivery and give the baby more time to develop. These may include corticosteroids, which can help mature the baby’s lungs and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome, and tocolytics, which can help delay contractions.
  2. Bed rest: If a mother is experiencing preterm labor, she may be advised to rest in bed and avoid physical activity in order to reduce the risk of premature delivery.
  3. Hospitalization: If preterm delivery is imminent, the mother may need to be hospitalized in order to receive medical care and monitoring. This may include medications to prevent or treat infections, as well as fetal monitoring to assess the baby’s health.
  4. Delivery: In some cases, delivery may be the best option for both the mother and the baby. Depending on the circumstances, this may be accomplished through induction of labor or by performing a cesarean section.
  5. Neonatal intensive care: Preterm babies often require specialized care in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in order to address the risks and complications associated with prematurity. This may include respiratory support, intravenous feeding, and monitoring for infections and other complications.
  6. Family support: The families of preterm babies may require emotional support and resources to help them cope with the stress and uncertainty of having a premature baby. This may include counseling, support groups, and access to resources such as financial assistance and transportation.

In general, the management of preterm birth requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving obstetricians, neonatologists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals working together to provide the best possible care for mother and baby.

Difference between Low Birth Weight and Preterm Birth

Low Birth Weight (LBW)Preterm Birth (PTB)
DefinitionBaby weighing <2,500 g at birthBaby born before 37 weeks gestation
TimingCan occur in full-term, preterm, or post-term infantsAlways occurs in preterm infants
CausesMaternal malnutrition, multiple gestation, smoking, drug use, pre-existing medical conditionsSpontaneous preterm labor, premature rupture of membranes, cervical incompetence, uterine abnormalities
RisksRespiratory distress syndrome, infections, hypoglycemia, hypothermia, developmental delaysRespiratory distress syndrome, brain hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, developmental delays, long-term disabilities
ManagementNutritional support, monitoring for complications, early interventionTocolytic drugs to prevent labor, corticosteroids to promote fetal lung development, monitoring for complications, early intervention

It’s important to note that while LBW and PTB are different, they can also occur together. A baby born preterm is more likely to have a low birth weight due to their shortened gestational period.


In conclusion, preterm birth and low birth weight are two distinct but often interconnected issues that can have significant impacts on the health and well-being of babies. Preterm birth, defined as birth before 37 weeks of gestation, can result in a range of complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, infections, and long-term developmental delays. Low birth weight, on the other hand, refers to babies who weigh less than 2,500 grams at birth, regardless of their gestational age. While preterm babies are often low birth weight, not all low birth weight babies are born prematurely.

Managing preterm birth requires a multi-faceted approach that includes careful monitoring, timely interventions, and support for both the mother and baby. This can include measures such as administering medication to delay labor, providing steroid injections to strengthen the baby’s lungs, and ensuring that the baby is born in a hospital equipped with specialized neonatal care. In addition, efforts to prevent preterm birth through measures such as regular prenatal care and lifestyle changes can help reduce the risk of complications.

Overall, it is important for expectant mothers to be aware of the risks associated with preterm birth and low birth weight and to work closely with their healthcare providers to manage these issues and ensure the best possible outcomes for themselves and their babies.

9-Month-Old Behavior Problems

Becoming a parent is an incredible journey filled with joys and challenges. As your little one reaches their 9-month mark, you may start noticing some changes in their behavior. While these changes are a natural part of their development, they can sometimes pose challenges for parents. In this article, we will explore common behavior problems that 9-month-olds may exhibit and provide you with valuable insights on how to navigate this phase effectively.

Common Behavior Challenges at 9 Months

Separation AnxietyAt around 9 months of age, it’s common for babies to develop separation anxiety. Your child may become more attached to you and exhibit distress when you leave their sight. This can be emotionally challenging for both you and your baby. To ease this transition, consider implementing short periods of separation while ensuring a caring and reassuring return.

Sleep RegressionSleep regression is another common issue at this age. Your baby, who may have been a decent sleeper, might start waking up more frequently during the night. To address this, establish a consistent bedtime routine, create a comfortable sleep environment, and reassure your baby during nighttime awakenings.

Teething TroublesTeething can be a painful experience for infants, causing discomfort and irritability. Your 9-month-old may become more fussy during this time. Provide teething toys, chilled teethers, or consult your pediatrician for safe teething remedies to alleviate their discomfort.

Feeding FussinessAs your baby explores the world of solids, they may display resistance to certain foods. Be patient and continue introducing a variety of nutritious options. This phase of fussiness will likely pass as they become more accustomed to different tastes and textures.

Mobility MilestonesAround 9 months, your baby might start crawling or attempting to take their first steps. This newfound mobility can be both exciting and challenging. Ensure a safe environment with baby-proofing measures to prevent accidents as they explore their surroundings.

Effective Parenting Strategies

Building a RoutineCreating a predictable daily schedule can provide a sense of security for your baby. This routine can include designated feeding times, playtime, and naps. Consistency helps your child understand what to expect.

Communication and BondingTalk to your baby, sing to them, and engage in interactive play. These activities not only foster healthy communication but also strengthen the bond between you and your child.

Safety and ChildproofingChildproofing your home is crucial during this phase of exploration. Secure heavy furniture, cover electrical outlets, and install safety gates to prevent accidents.

Professional Guidance

Consulting a PediatricianIf you are concerned about your baby’s behavior or any physical discomfort they may be experiencing, consult with your pediatrician. They can provide guidance, answer your questions, and offer solutions tailored to your child’s needs.

Seeking Support GroupsParenting can be challenging, and it’s essential to seek support when needed. Joining parenting support groups can provide valuable insights and reassurance from others experiencing similar challenges.

The Power of Patience

As a parent, it’s crucial to remember that each child develops at their own pace. Be patient and understanding, and provide a nurturing environment. Your love and support will play a significant role in helping your 9-month-old overcome behavior challenges and thrive.


The journey of parenting is filled with beautiful moments and some challenges. Understanding and addressing behavior problems in your 9-month-old is a natural part of this journey. By following the strategies mentioned above, you can navigate this phase with confidence, love, and patience.


1. Are behavior problems at 9 months common?

  • Yes, they are a natural part of a child’s development as they reach this age.

2. How long does separation anxiety typically last?

  • Separation anxiety usually peaks around 9-10 months and starts to improve around 14-18 months.

3. What are some signs of teething discomfort?

  • Signs may include excessive drooling, irritability, and a desire to chew on objects.

4. Is sleep regression permanent?

  • No, it is usually a temporary phase that can be managed with proper sleep routines.

5. When should I consult a pediatrician for behavior concerns?

  • If you have ongoing concerns about your child’s behavior or development, it’s a good idea to consult with a pediatrician for guidance and reassurance.

What are the developmental markers a nurse should assess for a 9-month-old female infant?

When assessing the development of a 9-month-old female infant, a nurse should look for various markers to ensure the child is meeting age-appropriate milestones. Here are some key developmental markers to assess:

  1. Motor Skills:
    • Sitting: The infant should be able to sit independently without support.
    • Crawling: Many infants begin to crawl, either by traditional crawling or scooting.
    • Pulling up: They may start to pull themselves up to a standing position using furniture or other supports.
  2. Fine Motor Skills:
    • Pincer Grasp: The infant should be able to pick up small objects using their thumb and forefinger.
    • Exploration: They should explore objects by banging, shaking, or mouthing them.
  3. Communication:
    • Babbling: The infant may babble with consonant-vowel combinations like “ma-ma” or “da-da.”
    • Gestures: They may use gestures like waving or pointing to communicate.
    • Responding to Name: The infant should respond when their name is called.
  4. Social and Emotional Development:
    • Stranger Anxiety: At this age, it’s common for infants to exhibit stranger anxiety, becoming more wary of unfamiliar people.
    • Attachment: The infant should display attachment to primary caregivers.
  5. Feeding:
    • Solid Foods: They should be introduced to a variety of solid foods in addition to breast milk or formula.
  6. Sleep:
    • Sleep Patterns: The infant should have a more predictable sleep schedule, with a couple of naps during the day and more extended periods of nighttime sleep.
  7. Teething: Check for signs of teething, such as swollen gums, excessive drooling, and a desire to chew on objects.
  8. Vision and Hearing:
    • Visual Tracking: The infant should be able to follow moving objects with their eyes.
    • Responding to Sounds: They should react to sounds by turning their head or expressing interest.
  9. Gross Motor Skills:
    • Rolling Over: The infant should have the ability to roll from their back to their stomach and vice versa.
  10. Cognitive Development:
    • Object Permanence: They might begin to understand that objects exist even when they are out of sight.

What was the normal behavioral development of a 9-month-old baby boy?

A 9-month-old baby boy typically goes through significant behavioral developments as part of his natural growth and maturation process. These behaviors are important indicators of his cognitive, motor, and social progress. Here is an overview of the normal behavioral development of a 9-month-old baby boy:

  1. Motor Skills:
    • Sitting: At this age, most baby boys can sit without support, although they may still require some balance assistance.
    • Crawling or Scooting: Many infants start to crawl or scoot on their belly, using their arms to propel themselves forward.
    • Pulling Up: They may begin pulling themselves up to a standing position using furniture, and some may even cruise along the furniture’s edge.
  2. Fine Motor Skills:
    • Pincer Grasp: A 9-month-old boy should be able to pick up small objects using their thumb and forefinger, showing increasing dexterity.
    • Exploration: They enjoy exploring objects by banging, shaking, or putting them in their mouth to learn more about their surroundings.
  3. Communication:
    • Babbling: Baby boys usually engage in more sophisticated babbling, making various consonant-vowel combinations like “ma-ma” or “da-da.”
    • Gestures: They may use gestures like waving, pointing, or clapping to communicate.
    • Responding to Name: A baby boy should respond when called by his name, showing recognition.
  4. Social and Emotional Development:
    • Stranger Anxiety: It’s common for infants to develop stranger anxiety at this age, becoming more cautious and anxious around unfamiliar people.
    • Attachment: A 9-month-old boy tends to show strong attachment to their primary caregivers, seeking comfort and security from them.
  5. Feeding:
    • Introduction to Solid Foods: At this stage, parents typically start introducing a variety of solid foods alongside breast milk or formula, allowing the baby to explore different tastes and textures.
  6. Sleep:
    • Sleep Patterns: Baby boys may have a more predictable sleep schedule with longer stretches of nighttime sleep. They usually take two to three naps during the day.
  7. Teething: Parents should watch for signs of teething, including swollen gums, drooling, and an increased desire to chew on objects.
  8. Vision and Hearing:
    • Visual Tracking: A 9-month-old boy should be able to follow moving objects with their eyes, demonstrating improved visual coordination.
    • Responding to Sounds: They should react to sounds by turning their head and expressing interest in their environment.
  9. Cognitive Development:
    • Object Permanence: Many infants begin to understand that objects still exist even when they are out of sight, a cognitive milestone known as object permanence.



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