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# [ANSWERED 2023] Discuss the historical application of statistics in the field of health care

Last Updated on 06/20/2023 by Admin

Table of Contents

# Discuss the historical application of statistics in the field of health care.

Topic 1 DQ 1:

Discuss the historical application of statistics in the field of health care. Describe an example, other than Florence Nightingale’s contributions, where statistical application has greatly influenced or changed health care operations or practice.

Topic 1 DQ 2:

Discuss why it is important for a person working in health care to understand statistical concepts. Provide an example of how statistical data is used in your organization or specialty area today and what you are expected to do with this information as a practitioner.

Expert Answer and Explanation

## Topic 1 DQ 1: Historical Application

It is difficult to have epidemiology research that does not constitute tables, odds ratio, or p-value. Statistics and mathematical methods are significant in the assessment of data as they help in the identification of causes of disease, modes of transmission, preventive measures, and the appropriate control mechanism (Stroup, & Lyerla, 2011). In history, the use of statistics in health care can be evidenced by the current Center for Disease Control (CDC) when it was established in 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center. The change of the name meant that the institution was broadening its scope of services.

The expansion increased the opportunities for the institution to utilize the contribution of statistics and engineering methods in health care (Stroup, & Lyerla, 2011). For instance, the CDC, in conjunction with the National Center for Health Statistics, carried out the first-ever National Health Assessment and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which helped to the development of the model to predict the amount of lead in human blood.

### William Farr – His Role in Healthcare

The United States Public Health Service adopted statistical methods developed by several scientists to form the current CDC. For instance, CDC borrowed the use of statistical induction to examine death rates by William Farr’s (Beyersmann, & Schrade, 2017). Farr is a major personality in the health care sector, which is a contribution to the history of epidemiology having in the industry for more than 30 years, examining the statistics of death and disease.

He came up with the nosology – disease classification framework- which was the predecessors of the current International Classification of Diseases (ICD) (Beyersmann, & Schrade, 2017). The diseases are applying his statistical insights into the tool to monitor and classify the leading cause of injuries and death with the bid to promote coherent international compatibility in terms of reporting of health data.

References

Beyersmann, J., & Schrade, C. (2017). Florence Nightingale, William Farr and competing risks. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society)180(1), 285-293. DOI: 10.1111/rssa.12187

Stroup, D. F., & Lyerla, R. (2011). History of statistics in public health at CDC 1960–2010: the rise of statistical evidence. Public health then and now: celebrating50. Retrieved 4 May 2020, from https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/su6004a7.htm

## Topic 1 DQ 2: Understanding Statistical Concepts in Health Care

With the changing of medical practice and delivery of care, there is a need for people working in the healthcare sector to have statistical knowledge (Aggarwal, 2018). Currently, the medical sector is transforming into an industry player that makes use of data to infer solutions. Statistics, through quantitative research, helps in shaping research makers with key numerical data retrieved from observations or measurements that best describe the characteristic of a specific population sample.

Based on descriptive statistics, the health care industry can best summarize the efficacy, cost, and utility of medical services and products (Aggarwal, 2018). For instance, the understanding of the prevalence of a given disease can be understood using statistical details to provide its relationship with the causative factors.

In my organization, there is the implementation of evidence-based practice with many nurses encourages us to understand how to come up with proper PICOT questions (Butler, Hall, & Copnell, 2016). Evidence-based practice makes use of statistical correlation to understand the best more of care that a patient who exhibits a certain set of characters can be given.

Not only does the practice help in the provision of quality care, but also in the provision of quality management services and support due to enhanced decision making. As practitioners, the expectation is that we be able to interpret the information retrieved from the statistical data and use it to offer better and informed care.

The end goal of using evidence practice is to maximize the overall positive patient outcomes (Butler, Hall, & Copnell, 2016). Similarly, the practice ensures that most patients attain high levels of patient satisfaction, and the number of medical errors is also minimized. In this manner, statistics have a close relationship with overall patient care concerns and issues.

References

Aggarwal, R. (2018). Statistical literacy for healthcare professionals: Why is it important? Annals of cardiac anaesthesia21(4), 349. Doi: 10.4103/aca.ACA_177_18

Butler, A., Hall, H., & Copnell, B. (2016). A guide to writing a qualitative systematic review protocol to enhance evidence‐based practice in nursing and health care. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing13(3), 241-249. Doi: 10.1111/wvn.12134

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FAQs

# 10 uses of health statistics

1. Monitoring public health: Health statistics can be used to track the prevalence and incidence of diseases and health conditions in a population, allowing public health officials to identify trends and patterns and develop targeted interventions.
2. Evaluating health interventions: Health statistics can be used to assess the effectiveness of health interventions, including medical treatments, public health campaigns, and policy changes.
3. Allocating resources: Health statistics can help policymakers and health officials determine how to allocate resources, such as funding for medical research, public health programs, and healthcare facilities.
4. Identifying health disparities: Health statistics can be used to identify disparities in health outcomes between different demographic groups, such as by age, gender, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.
5. Planning healthcare services: Health statistics can inform decisions about the need for healthcare services and the types of services required, such as the number of hospital beds or the availability of specialized medical equipment.
6. Assessing health risks: Health statistics can help identify environmental and lifestyle factors that contribute to poor health outcomes, such as exposure to pollution, tobacco use, and poor nutrition.
7. Conducting epidemiological research: Health statistics are a vital source of data for epidemiological research, which seeks to understand the causes and distribution of diseases in populations.
8. Informing public policy: Health statistics can be used to inform public policy decisions on issues such as healthcare reform, vaccination policies, and health education campaigns.
9. Supporting medical research: Health statistics can be used to identify research gaps and areas of need in medical research, as well as to track the progress of ongoing research.
10. Predicting future health needs: Health statistics can be used to make projections about future health needs and trends, allowing health officials to plan and prepare for changing healthcare demands.

## 7 importance of statistics in nursing

1. Monitoring patient outcomes: Statistics can be used to track patient outcomes, including mortality rates, readmission rates, and infection rates, allowing nurses to identify areas for improvement and make evidence-based decisions.
2. Evaluating nursing interventions: Statistics can be used to assess the effectiveness of nursing interventions, including medication management, wound care, and patient education.
3. Informing clinical decision-making: Statistics can provide nurses with important information on patient risk factors, comorbidities, and disease prevalence, which can help guide clinical decision-making.
4. Identifying health disparities: Statistics can be used to identify disparities in health outcomes among different patient populations, allowing nurses to tailor care to individual patients’ needs.
5. Improving patient safety: Statistics can be used to identify areas where patient safety can be improved, such as reducing medication errors or preventing hospital-acquired infections.
6. Conducting research: Statistics are essential to conducting nursing research, including studies on patient outcomes, nursing interventions, and the impact of healthcare policies.
7. Contributing to quality improvement: Statistics can be used to track performance metrics and quality improvement initiatives, allowing nurses to make data-driven decisions that improve patient care and outcomes.

# How Many Hospitals Are in the United States?

## Introduction

Hospitals play a critical role in the healthcare system, providing essential medical services to individuals across the United States. The availability and accessibility of hospitals are vital factors in ensuring the well-being of the population. In this article, we will delve into the topic of how many hospitals exist in the United States and explore the significance of these institutions in delivering healthcare services to the nation’s citizens.

## The Importance of Hospitals in the United States

Hospitals are vital institutions within the healthcare landscape of the United States. They serve as primary centers for medical treatment, emergency care, surgeries, diagnostics, and rehabilitation. Hospitals also act as key hubs for medical research, training future healthcare professionals, and advancing medical knowledge.

## Understanding Hospital Classification

Hospitals in the United States can be classified into different categories based on their ownership, services offered, and patient population served. Some common classifications include general hospitals, specialized hospitals, academic medical centers, government-owned hospitals, nonprofit hospitals, and for-profit hospitals. Each classification has a unique role in addressing specific healthcare needs.

## Total Number of Hospitals in the United States

As of the most recent data, the United States has a significant number of hospitals providing healthcare services. According to the American Hospital Association (AHA), there were approximately X hospitals in the country. It’s worth noting that the exact number may vary over time due to new hospital constructions, closures, mergers, and acquisitions.

## Breakdown of Hospital Types

Within the broad spectrum of hospitals, there are variations in their organizational structures and services provided. The breakdown of hospital types includes general medical and surgical hospitals, psychiatric hospitals, rehabilitation hospitals, children’s hospitals, and specialty hospitals dedicated to specific areas such as cancer treatment or cardiovascular care.

## Distribution of Hospitals Across States

Hospitals are spread throughout the United States to ensure widespread access to healthcare services. The distribution of hospitals across states is not uniform, with densely populated areas typically having a higher concentration of healthcare facilities. States such as California, Texas, and New York have a larger number of hospitals due to their larger populations.

## Hospital Bed Capacity

The bed capacity of hospitals is a crucial metric that determines their ability to accommodate patients. It reflects the number of available beds for inpatient care, critical care, and emergency services. The United States has a substantial bed capacity across its hospitals, ensuring that patients receive the necessary care when they need it.

## Impact of Hospital Closures

Hospital closures can have significant implications for healthcare access, particularly in underserved areas. Factors such as financial challenges, changing demographics, and shifts in healthcare policies can contribute to hospital closures. These closures can strain the remaining healthcare facilities and create barriers to timely and adequate medical care for affected communities.

## Future Trends in Hospital Infrastructure

The field of healthcare is continually evolving, and hospitals are not exempt from these changes. Future trends in hospital infrastructure focus on patient-centered care, technological advancements, telemedicine, and the integration of data analytics to improve healthcare outcomes. These developments aim to enhance efficiency, quality, and accessibility in the delivery of healthcare services.

## Quality of Care in Hospitals

Ensuring the provision of high-quality care is paramount for hospitals. Various quality measures, including patient satisfaction, safety protocols, infection control, and clinical outcomes, are evaluated to assess the performance of hospitals. Continuous quality improvement efforts are essential for hospitals to deliver excellent healthcare services to their patients.

## Advancements in Technology and Healthcare

Technological advancements have revolutionized the healthcare industry, and hospitals are at the forefront of adopting these innovations. From electronic health records (EHRs) to robotic-assisted surgeries, technology has improved diagnosis accuracy, treatment effectiveness, and patient experience. Incorporating these advancements helps hospitals deliver better care and improve overall healthcare outcomes.

## Challenges Faced by Hospitals

Hospitals face numerous challenges in providing optimal healthcare services. Some common challenges include financial pressures, staffing shortages, rising healthcare costs, regulatory compliance, and keeping up with rapidly evolving medical technologies. Addressing these challenges requires innovative solutions and collaborative efforts from healthcare providers, policymakers, and industry stakeholders.

## Role of Hospitals in Emergency Preparedness

Hospitals play a critical role in emergency preparedness and response. They are instrumental in managing disasters, pandemics, and other public health emergencies. Hospitals collaborate with local, state, and federal agencies to develop robust emergency plans, stockpile essential supplies, and train healthcare professionals to ensure an efficient response during crises.

## The Economic Impact of Hospitals

Hospitals have a significant economic impact on the communities they serve. They generate jobs, stimulate local economies, and contribute to tax revenues. Additionally, hospitals support various industries, including pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, and healthcare services. Their presence is vital for both healthcare and the overall economic well-being of a region.

## Government Regulations and Oversight

Given the importance of hospitals in providing critical healthcare services, they are subject to extensive government regulations and oversight. Federal and state agencies monitor hospitals to ensure compliance with healthcare standards, patient safety, and quality of care. These regulations aim to safeguard patients’ interests and maintain the integrity of the healthcare system.

## Conclusion

Hospitals form the backbone of the healthcare system in the United States, providing essential medical services and playing a crucial role in promoting public health. The number of hospitals in the country is substantial, and they serve diverse communities with varying healthcare needs. As healthcare continues to evolve, hospitals must adapt to new challenges, embrace technological advancements, and prioritize the delivery of high-quality, patient-centered care.

## FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. How many hospitals are there in the United States?
• According to the American Hospital Association (AHA), there were approximately X hospitals in the United States.
2. What are the different types of hospitals?
• Hospitals can be classified into categories such as general hospitals, specialized hospitals, academic medical centers, government-owned hospitals, nonprofit hospitals, and for-profit hospitals.
3. Which states have the highest number of hospitals?
• States with larger populations like California, Texas, and New York tend to have a higher concentration of hospitals.
4. How do hospitals contribute to the economy?
• Hospitals generate jobs, stimulate local economies, and support various industries such as pharmaceuticals and medical equipment.
5. What challenges do hospitals face?
• Hospitals face challenges such as financial pressures, staffing shortages, rising healthcare costs, and keeping up with evolving medical technologies.

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