[ANSWERED 2023] For the middle-aged adult, exercise can reduce the risk of various health problems. Choose two at-risk health issues that regular physical exercise and activity can help prevent and manage

Written By: Dan Palmer, RN

For the middle-aged adult, exercise can reduce the risk of various health problems. Choose two at-risk health issues that regular

For the middle-aged adult, exercise can reduce the risk of various health problems. Choose two at-risk health issues that regular physical exercise and activity can help prevent and manage

For the middle-aged adult, exercise can reduce the risk of various health problems. Choose two at-risk health issues that regular physical exercise and activity can help prevent and manage. Discuss the prevalence of each of these health problems in society today. Describe measures that you would take as a nurse to assist clients with health promotion measures to incorporate exercise and physical activity into their lives.

Include the kind of activities you would recommend, the amount of exercise, and the approach you would use to gain cooperation from the client. Support your response with evidence-based literature.

Expert Answer and Explanation

Health Management through Physiotherapy

The contemporary clinical solutions to the health issues such as type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD) rely on the physical exercise to advance the disease management and prevention objectives. According to the statistical estimates conducted in 2015, the United States (U.S.) had 30.3 million cases of diabetes mellitus (Bullard et al., 2018). Because factors such as age and economic status predisposes one to the risk of contracting this disease, these cases are highly spread in older adults as well as in economically-disadvantaged populations.

This is the same case with the CHD which predominantly affects older Americans (Sanchis-Gomar et al., 2016). Based on the 2016 statistical approximation, the disease affected 15.5 million Americans, aged 20 and above. Another characteristics that is noticeable with the two diseases is their distribution with respect to the race and ethnicities. Minority populations’ risk of contracting either of these disease is higher than the risk in the white populations.

Considering the benefits associated with the physiotherapy, it is imperative that caregivers guide patients through the process of incorporating exercise into their. To realize this goal as a nurse, it is important to focus on educating the patient on certain aspects of the physical activities which can help them manage diabetes as well as CHD.

The first step in the educational process is to assess whether the patient practices any form of physical exercise, and follow this with explaining to the patient the benefit of this form of activity (Tuso, 2015).

Encouraging the patient to actively participate in activities such as walking or doing light jogging every day of the week, for 30 minutes, is important to the health promotion. If possible, involving the family members of the patient can be important in the sense that it helps provide the patient the support they need to adhere to the physiotherapy regimen.

The involvement of the family can also help gain cooperation from the client.

References

Bullard, K. M., Cowie, C. C., Lessem, S. E., Saydah, S. H., Menke, A., Geiss, L. S., … Imperatore, G. (2018). Prevalence of Diagnosed Diabetes in Adults by Diabetes Type – United States, 2016. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report67(12), 359–361. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6712a2.

Sanchis-Gomar, F., Perez-Quilis, C., Leischik, R., & Lucia, A. (2016). Epidemiology of coronary heart disease and acute coronary syndrome. Annals of translational medicine4(13), 256. doi:10.21037/atm.2016.06.33.

Tuso P. (2015). Strategies to Increase Physical Activity. The Permanente journal19(4), 84–88. doi:10.7812/TPP/14-242.

Alternative Expert Answer and Explanation

Prevalence and Prevention of Diabetes and Hypertension

Individuals at risk of diabetes and hypertension or even those with these two conditions can receive immense benefits from physical activity. These two health conditions are prevalent in the United States (U.S.), and the cases differ across populations from different demographic backgrounds. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) updates information concerning the prevalence of the two medical conditions, and based one of the agency’s reports, the number of individuals in the country with diabetes is more than 30.3 million people (CDC, 2017).

A population of 84.1 million of Americans are pre-diabetic, and this group is at risk of developing diabetes if they fail to get early treatment (Bullard et al., 2018). Conversely, the number of the incidences of hypertension are higher compared to the cases of diabetes. Approximately, 77.9 million adult Americans have this condition.

However, for both diseases, cases differ across various social dimensions including family income status, race and education. Among the educated Americans, incidences were 12% in 2017. In the same year still, rates among the Appalachia communities were higher compared to the general population.

Various measures can help the recovery of the patients or the prevention of the two medical conditions. Involving the patient or at risk person is a light physical activity that takes 30 minutes every day can yield better clinical outcomes. Physiotherapy plan should include instructions on the type of the activity or exercise the patient will have to perform.

The exercise ranges from the brisk walk, to jogging and running. Besides, it is important to recommend to the patient the food they would need to eat so that they can stay healthy (Brown et al., 2017). To facilitate the cooperation from the client, it is important to involve them in identifying the type of activity which can be appealing to them, and involving them in scheduling for the physical activity.

References

Brown, A., Houser, R. F., Mattei, J., Mozaffarian, D., Lichtenstein, A. H., & Folta, S. C. (2017). Hypertension among US-born and foreign-born non-Hispanic Blacks: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2014 data. Journal of hypertension35(12), 2380–2387. doi:10.1097/HJH.0000000000001489.

Bullard, K. M., Cowie, C. C., Lessem, S. E., Saydah, S. H., Menke, A., Geiss, L. S., … Imperatore, G. (2018). Prevalence of Diagnosed Diabetes in Adults by Diabetes Type – United States, 2016. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report67(12), 359–361. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6712a2.

CDC. (2017). New CDC Report: More than 100 Million Americans have Diabetes or Prediabetes. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2017/p0718-diabetes-report.html.

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FAQs

35 benefits of exercise

  1. Reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and obesity.
  2. Boosts the immune system, making it easier to fight off infections.
  3. Helps to control and manage weight by burning calories and increasing metabolism.
  4. Improves cardiovascular health by strengthening the heart and lungs.
  5. Enhances brain function by improving blood flow to the brain and increasing cognitive function.
  6. Reduces anxiety and depression by releasing endorphins and improving mood.
  7. Increases muscle strength and endurance, improving overall physical performance.
  8. Improves bone density, reducing the risk of osteoporosis and fractures.
  9. Enhances flexibility and mobility, reducing the risk of injury and improving posture.
  10. Improves balance and coordination, reducing the risk of falls.
  11. Improves sleep quality and duration, reducing the risk of sleep disorders.
  12. Reduces the risk of certain cancers such as breast and colon cancer.
  13. Reduces inflammation in the body, which is linked to many chronic diseases.
  14. Improves insulin sensitivity, reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes.
  15. Reduces blood pressure, lowering the risk of heart disease and stroke.
  16. Improves lung function and capacity, making it easier to breathe.
  17. Reduces chronic pain, including back pain and arthritis.
  18. Boosts energy levels by increasing oxygen flow to the muscles.
  19. Reduces the risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
  20. Improves digestion and reduces constipation.
  21. Improves circulation, reducing the risk of varicose veins and blood clots.
  22. Boosts self-esteem and confidence by improving body image and physical abilities.
  23. Increases libido and sexual function.
  24. Improves skin health by increasing blood flow and reducing inflammation.
  25. Helps to manage stress by reducing cortisol levels and promoting relaxation.
  26. Improves social interaction by providing opportunities for socializing and group activities.
  27. Enhances creativity and productivity by increasing mental clarity and focus.
  28. Reduces the risk of premature death.
  29. Improves overall quality of life.
  30. Helps to maintain independence in old age by preserving physical function.
  31. Reduces healthcare costs by preventing chronic diseases and reducing healthcare utilization.
  32. Helps to maintain a healthy weight and prevent weight gain.
  33. Improves mood and reduces the risk of depression.
  34. Helps to build and maintain healthy relationships through shared activities.
  35. Provides a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction from achieving fitness goals.

Recommended exercise per week

The recommended amount of exercise per week varies depending on the age, fitness level, and overall health of an individual. However, the general recommendation for adults is to aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise per week, spread out over at least three days per week. Additionally, adults should engage in muscle-strengthening activities at least two days per week, targeting all major muscle groups.

For older adults or those with chronic conditions, it may be appropriate to start with lower-intensity activities and gradually increase the amount and intensity of exercise over time. It’s always a good idea to consult with a healthcare provider before starting a new exercise program or increasing activity levels.

Physical activity and chronic disease prevention

Physical activity is strongly associated with the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Regular exercise can help to reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and some types of cancer. Physical activity has also been shown to improve the management of these conditions in individuals who already have them.

Here are some of the ways in which physical activity can help to prevent and manage chronic diseases:

  1. Improves cardiovascular health: Physical activity helps to improve heart and blood vessel health, reducing the risk of heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure.
  2. Reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes: Regular exercise helps to improve insulin sensitivity, making it easier for the body to use insulin to control blood sugar levels.
  3. Manages weight: Physical activity helps to burn calories and maintain a healthy weight, reducing the risk of obesity and associated health problems.
  4. Reduces the risk of some cancers: Physical activity has been shown to reduce the risk of developing certain cancers, such as breast, colon, and lung cancer.
  5. Reduces inflammation: Physical activity can help to reduce chronic inflammation, which is linked to many chronic diseases.
  6. Improves mental health: Physical activity has been shown to reduce the risk of depression and anxiety, which are risk factors for many chronic diseases.
  7. Improves bone health: Physical activity can help to build and maintain strong bones, reducing the risk of osteoporosis and fractures.
  8. Enhances immune function: Regular exercise can boost the immune system, making it easier to fight off infections and chronic diseases.

Diseases cured by exercise

Exercise is not a cure for diseases, but it can be an important part of prevention, management, and treatment of many chronic diseases. Here are some examples of chronic diseases that can be managed with exercise:

  1. Cardiovascular disease: Exercise can help to improve heart health, reducing the risk of heart attack, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases.
  2. Type 2 diabetes: Exercise can improve insulin sensitivity, making it easier for the body to regulate blood sugar levels and reducing the risk of complications associated with diabetes.
  3. Obesity: Exercise helps to burn calories and maintain a healthy weight, reducing the risk of obesity-related health problems.
  4. Osteoporosis: Exercise can help to build and maintain strong bones, reducing the risk of fractures and osteoporosis.
  5. Arthritis: Exercise can help to reduce joint pain and stiffness, improving mobility and quality of life for people with arthritis.
  6. Depression and anxiety: Exercise can help to improve mood and reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety.
  7. Cancer: Exercise can help to improve cancer-related fatigue, reduce the risk of some types of cancer, and improve overall quality of life for cancer survivors.

It’s important to note that exercise should always be used in conjunction with other treatments prescribed by a healthcare provider. While exercise can be an effective way to manage and prevent chronic diseases, it is not a substitute for medical treatment or medication.

How does exercise prevent heart disease?

Exercise can prevent heart disease by improving various risk factors that contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. Here are some of the ways in which exercise helps to prevent heart disease:

  1. Reducing blood pressure: Regular exercise can help to lower blood pressure, which is a major risk factor for heart disease. Exercise helps to improve blood vessel function and reduce the workload on the heart.
  2. Improving cholesterol levels: Exercise can help to increase levels of HDL (good) cholesterol and decrease levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol, which reduces the risk of plaque buildup in the arteries.
  3. Preventing obesity: Exercise helps to burn calories and maintain a healthy weight, reducing the risk of obesity, which is a major risk factor for heart disease.
  4. Improving insulin sensitivity: Exercise can help to improve the body’s ability to use insulin, which is important for regulating blood sugar levels and reducing the risk of diabetes, which is a risk factor for heart disease.
  5. Reducing inflammation: Exercise can help to reduce chronic inflammation, which is linked to many chronic diseases, including heart disease.
  6. Improving heart function: Regular exercise helps to improve heart muscle strength and function, making it easier for the heart to pump blood and reducing the risk of heart disease.
  7. Reducing stress: Exercise can help to reduce stress levels, which can contribute to high blood pressure and other risk factors for heart disease.

How does physical activity affect your personal health?

Physical activity has numerous positive effects on personal health. Here are some ways in which physical activity can affect your personal health:

  1. Improved cardiovascular health: Regular physical activity can help to improve heart health by strengthening the heart muscle, reducing blood pressure, and improving blood vessel function.
  2. Better weight management: Physical activity can help to burn calories and maintain a healthy weight, reducing the risk of obesity and associated health problems.
  3. Stronger bones and muscles: Regular exercise can help to build and maintain strong bones and muscles, reducing the risk of osteoporosis and falls.
  4. Improved mental health: Physical activity can help to reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety, improve mood and self-esteem, and reduce stress levels.
  5. Better sleep: Regular exercise can help to improve the quality and duration of sleep, leading to better overall health and wellbeing.
  6. Reduced risk of chronic diseases: Physical activity can help to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some types of cancer.

Types of physical activity

There are three main types of physical activity: aerobic, strength, and flexibility.

  1. Aerobic activity: Aerobic exercise, also known as cardio, involves activities that increase your heart rate and breathing, such as running, brisk walking, cycling, swimming, or dancing. This type of exercise helps to improve cardiovascular health, burn calories, and improve overall fitness.
  2. Strength training: Strength training involves activities that help to build and maintain muscle mass and strength, such as weightlifting, resistance band exercises, or bodyweight exercises like push-ups and squats. This type of exercise can help to improve bone health, increase metabolism, and improve overall physical performance.
  3. Flexibility exercises: Flexibility exercises involve activities that help to improve range of motion and joint flexibility, such as stretching or yoga. This type of exercise can help to improve posture, reduce the risk of injury, and improve overall physical function.
  4. Improved immune function: Regular exercise can help to boost the immune system, reducing the risk of infections and illnesses.
  5. Better cognitive function: Physical activity has been shown to improve cognitive function, including memory, attention, and executive function.

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