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[ANSWERED] The needs of the pediatric patient differ depending on age, as do the stages of development and the expected assessment findings for each stage. In a 500-750-word paper

The needs of the pediatric patient differ depending on age, as do the stages of development and the expected assessment findings for each stage. In a 500-750-word paper, examine the needs of a schoolaged child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old and discuss the following:

  1. Compare the physical assessments among schoolaged children. Describe how you would modify assessment techniques to match the age and developmental stage of the child.
  2. Choose a child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old. Identify the age of the child and describe the typical developmental stages of children that age.
  3. Applying developmental theory based on Erickson, Piaget, or Kohlberg, explain how you would developmentally assess the child. Include how you would offer explanations during the assessment, strategies you would use to gain cooperation, and potential findings from the assessment.

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Expert Answer and Explanation

Physical Assessments in School-Aged Children

Physical assessment varies with different ages. Among school-going children, the physical assessment done is different from what could be done for younger children. At this age, the children have already developed some sense of body consciousness, which makes them more preserved about their bodies (De Onis, 2017). It is therefore essential for the nurse to consider whether the child wants the assessment to be done in the presence of their parents or not. Just like in the previous assessment age groups, school-going children are still assessed using the head-to-toe method. The nurse should start the examination by carrying out a physical inspection of the child. Depending on the assessment, other techniques like palpation, percussion, and auscultation, can be done subsequently to get a clear picture of the child’s status.

Typical developmental stages of children at age 7

Using the three developmental charts based on Erickson, Piaget, and Kohlberg, a seven-year-old child is intellectually curious and develops an industrious attitude knowing they will get recognition for being productive. The child also develops a feeling of either superiority or inferiority, depending on how people react to their actions. The child also develops a sense of obedience to those in authority with the belief that there is an ultimate reward for being obedient. The child also becomes aware of the overt societal rules and conventions and conform to them. The child, at this age, is also able to isolate fantasies from reality and develops critical thinking skills (Varghese & Susmitha, 2015).

The social interaction of the child also changes, with them being able to understand that people have different feelings and thoughts on how they view things. They make friends and start developing rules to govern their interactions, which gives them a sense of belonging/peer acceptance within their friendship circle.  The child will also begin to develop a sense of independence from their parents and interacting with friends who are mainly from their gender orientation. The child at this stage will have started knowing their body better and will be more vocal in explaining any pains in specific parts of their body.

Application of developmental theory in the child’s assessment

Using Erikson’s 8 stages of emotional development, examining the child’s interaction with his peers and those who are close to them can help get the needed information. As indicated earlier, the social and emotional aspects of the child at seven years have become more developed. An interaction with them on their social behaviors can therefore help to assess the development of the child (Cherry, 2018). Getting input from the parents can also help to augment the information obtained from the child.

When offering an explanation to the child during the assessment, the nurse should be simple in their description so that the patient can understand. The pacing of the nurse explanation should also be factored when helping the patient to comprehend what the assessment is all about. Taking time to engage the patient’s queries, if any, can help them feel more at ease and dispel their worries during the assessment. The nurse should always encourage the child to participate during the assessment.

Minding the child’s modesty when carrying out the assessment will go a long way in improving their cooperation. Having them cover their undergarments will make them feel comfortable and at ease while carrying out the assessment. Showing a calm and friendly demeanor can also help to enhance cooperation from the child (Hockenberry & Wilson, 2018). Depending on the child’s assessment, the nurse should be able to identify any emotional distress from the child. The assessment will also be able to link whether the psychological issues affecting the child has an impact on the overall development and performance of that child.

References

Cherry, K. (2018). Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development. Retrieved June5, 2018.

De Onis, M. (2017). Child growth and development. In Nutrition and Health in a Developing World (pp. 119-141). Humana Press, Cham.

Hockenberry, M. J., & Wilson, D. (2018). Wong’s nursing care of infants and children-E-book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Varghese, S., & Susmitha, A. (2015). Textbook of Pediatric Nursing.

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