The purpose of this assignment is to discuss concepts of epidemiology and apply nursing
The purpose of this assignment is to discuss concepts of epidemiology and apply nursing theories and research to a communicable disease. Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC websites, all located in the topic Resources, for assistance when completing this assignment.
Choose a communicable disease topic from the resources mentioned above or you may select one from the list below:
- Hepatitis B
- E. coli
- Hepatitis A
Write a paper (1,000-1,500 words) in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing to research a communicable disease. Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC websites, located in the topic Resources, for assistance when completing this assignment.
- Describe the chosen communicable disease, including causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence).
- Explain why this is a reportable disease. Provide details about reporting criteria.
- Describe the social determinants of health and how those factors contribute to the development of the chosen communicable disease.
- Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected. Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors.
- Identify any special considerations or notifications for the epidemiologic triangle (community, schools, or general population).
- Explain the importance of demographic data to community health.
- Describe the role of the community health nurse in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention through tasks such as case finding, reporting, data collection, analysis, and follow-up. Provide an example of how Christian worldview can be integrated by a community health nurse when working with a population impacted by the communicable disease selected.
- Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organizations contribute to resolving or reducing the impact of disease.
- Discuss a global implication of the disease. How is this addressed in other countries or cultures? Is this disease endemic to a particular area? Provide an example.
A minimum of three peer-reviewed or professional references (i.e., professional health organizations like CDC, WHO, OSHA, DHS) is required.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Course Resources if you need assistance.
Expert Answer and Explanation
Epidemiology of Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis is a serious infectious disease which mostly affects the lungs. It is a bacterial infection spread through the inhalation of droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Its main area of infection is the lungs but it can also be evident in other body parts such as the bone, the glands and the nervous system (Kevin, 2019). Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection and the infection of the lungs, called the pulmonary tuberculosis and it is the most contagious type. The bacteria that is involved in the transmission of tuberculosis is known as Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.
In most cases prolonged periods of exposure and close contact to infected persons is what increases the chances of the transmission and spread of tuberculosis (Kevin, 2019). However, not everyone with tuberculosis is infectious. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is the TB infection that occurs outside the lungs. Such infections and children with tuberculosis cannot infect other people with tuberculosis (Kevin, 2019). The bacteria when inhaled, settles in the lungs and continues growing and spreading to other organs.
A large population that gets infected with the bacteria that causes tuberculosis do not show any symptoms. Symptoms such as fever, weight loss and a cough might occur on some occasions. Latent TB is explained above as it occurs in cases where the patient depicts no symptoms despite having been infected by the bacteria.
For active TB, the patient has evident symptoms. In this case, the possibility of transmission is also high (Kevin, 2019). This one may take a long duration after the infection by the bacteria. Some of the symptoms of TB include; coughing for a period of three weeks and more, presence of blood or mucus in the cough, chest pains and difficulties, pain during breathing and coughing, weight loss, fever, and loss of appetite.
Mode of Transmission
Most of the above symptoms occur when the TB has affected the lungs. In cases where it affects other parts of the body such as the spine, the symptoms may be different. Lack of treatment of tuberculosis could be fatal. It could have effect on not only the lungs but also other parts of the body (Kevin, 2019). Some of the complications of tuberculosis include spinal pain, joint pain and damage, swelling of the brain membranes commonly known as meningitis, liver problems and heart problems.
Treatment of tuberculosis is important in preventing unnecessary disorders. The treatment is mainly carried out by having the patient take antibiotics for a period of 6-9 months. The length of consumption of the drugs however differs according to the age, health and drug resistance of the patient.
Demographic of Interests
Tuberculosis has had a large effect on population and the mortality rate. 1.5 million people died of TB in 2020. The disease is regarded as the 13th leading cause of death and is ranked as the second leading infectious killer after COVID-19 (Sharma, 2018). People with TB bacteria live at a 5-10% risk of getting ill with TB. Those with poor immune systems and people with HIV and diabetes are a high target of TB.
Tuberculosis is a reportable disease. The law requires that any patient suspected or confirmed to have been infected by the disease be reported within a period of 1 working day to the TB Control Section. It is advisable not to wait for lab reports to confirm the situation on such occasions.
Social determinants of health involve the situations of the people. This involves the conditions and the environment in which they were born, live, work and grow old (Tao,2020). Such factors include the socioeconomic status, education employment and the way the people socialize through the support networks. Societies involve family and interactions are a main field of transmission for the disease (Tao, 2020). The disease involves cough droplets and the bacteria can be easily transmitted from one person to another mainly when people of the same family or society are interacting in social occasions.
Epidemiologic Triangle of TB
The transmission of tuberculosis among human beings requires a host. In this case, the bacteria, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, that causes TB looks up to the human as a host (Tao, 2020). When the human being inhales droplet nuclei which contains the bacteria, it is easy for the bacteria to be transmitted from one person to another and causing cases of tuberculosis illness on some occasions. The bacteria only infect the body of a human being as a host. However, not all the cases involve the host falling ill with tuberculosis (Tao, 2020). The bacteria cause tuberculosis on a person’s body following various factors affecting the host.
A person infected by the bacteria may suffer from tuberculosis if they are diabetic, low body weight, substance abuse which includes tobacco substances such as cigarettes, organ transplants and HIV infection (Tao, 2020). Most of these medical conditions lead to a weak immune system in the host rendering them unable to fight the bacteria.
The surrounding environment is important in determining the prevention of diseases. For many years, tuberculosis has been linked with factors in the environment that increase the risk of infection. Such factors as indoor air pollution, smoking of tobacco, malnutrition and overcrowded living conditions are major risk to the rate of TB infection.
The society, schools and general population need to consider such factors in order to reduce the cases of TB (Tao, 2020). Ensuring proper and good ventilation not only in homes but also in schools. Overcrowded areas should be avoided as in such conditions the chances of the spread of the bacteria are high. Excessive use of alcohol damages organs such as the liver which might need to be replaced. Such organ transplants as explained above, reduce and weaken the immune strength and hence increase the vulnerability of the person to infection.
Role of the Community Health Nurse
Community health nurses have in many cases proved important in the prevention and reduction of disease infection. The role of these nurses is also focused on improving the health of the patients. Nurses have many roles in the community and as part of the disease prevention, they play an important part in being an educator (Pereira, 2018). In case of a communicable disease such as tuberculosis, it is important for the community to understand the causes, symptoms and most important, the modes of transmission and how to prevent the disease (Pereira, 2018).
It is important that such nurses arise from the community to improve interaction and understanding. They are important also in advocating for their communities for the easy access to appropriate health care. Demographic data is mainly important in ensuring that the factors involved in the health of a community are evident. The data is important as there are some factors such as age and medical history which are crucial in determining the chances of disease transmission and infection.
The U.S Agency for International Development leads the U.S government in the global efforts to prevent the spread of TB. They work with agencies and partners all around the world to reach any person affected by the disease as they try to control it. The USAID cooperates with the Ministry of Health to aid up to 23 countries which are highly affected by TB. Their activities involve ensuring the provision of cure to those who need treatment and working on preventive measures to curb the transmission of the bacteria.
Global Implication of the Disease
Tuberculosis, as mentioned above, could be fatal if not treated. The world has experienced many fatalities from the disease. Tuberculosis claims up to 1.5 million lives each year (Sharma, 2018). The year 2018 suffered an infection percentage of 23% of the total world population. Of 10 people with TB 3 are normally missed because of cases where there are no evident symptoms. As a result, this increases the transmission of the bacteria. In India, tuberculosis is one of the major health problems.
Fatalities of 220,000 deaths each year are experienced. The Indian government through the National TB Elimination program looks to eliminate TB by 2025 (Mase, 2019). Their interventions include major investments into the health care sector, provision of nutritional diets and the organization of an epidemiological survey for tuberculosis.
Kevin, J. (2019). Immunology of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infections. Microbiology Spectrum 7(4).
Tao. W. (2020). Social determinants of Health and Inequalities in COVID-19. European Journal of Public Health 30 (4),617-618
Pereira. F. (2018). Beliefs and implementation of evidence-based practice among community health nurses: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Journal of Clinical Nursing 27 (9-10).
Mase, R. S. (2019). The end TB strategy for India. Indian Journal of Tuberculosis 66 (1), 165-166.
Sharma. E. (2018). Female genital tuberculosis: Revisited. The Indian Journal of Medical Research 148 (Suppl 1), S71,2018
What are the causes and modes of transmission of a communicable disease?
Communicable diseases, also known as infectious diseases, are caused by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. These diseases can be transmitted from an infected person, animal, or environmental source to a susceptible individual. The modes of transmission and causes of communicable diseases vary depending on the specific pathogen.
Here are the common causes and modes of transmission:
Causes of Communicable Diseases:
- Bacteria: Bacterial infections are caused by various types of bacteria. Examples include tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), strep throat (Streptococcus pyogenes), and salmonellosis (Salmonella spp.).
- Viruses: Viral infections result from viruses. Examples include influenza (influenza virus), HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), and COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2).
- Fungi: Fungal infections are caused by fungi. Examples include athlete’s foot (Trichophyton spp.) and candidiasis (Candida spp.).
- Parasites: Parasitic infections are caused by parasites such as protozoa, helminths (worms), and ectoparasites like ticks and mites. Examples include malaria (Plasmodium spp.), tapeworm infestations (Taenia spp.), and scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei).
Modes of Transmission:
- Direct Contact: In direct transmission, the pathogen is transmitted directly from an infected person or animal to a susceptible individual through physical contact. Examples include kissing, sexual intercourse, and touching contaminated surfaces.
- Indirect Contact: Indirect transmission occurs when a person comes into contact with contaminated objects or surfaces. Common vehicles of indirect transmission include doorknobs, utensils, and contaminated medical instruments.
- Respiratory Droplets: Respiratory droplets carrying infectious agents are released into the air when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes. If these droplets are inhaled by a nearby person, they can become infected. Diseases like COVID-19 and influenza are often transmitted this way.
- Airborne Transmission: Some pathogens, like tuberculosis bacteria, can remain suspended in the air for extended periods. When a person inhales these pathogens, they can cause disease.
- Fecal-Oral Route: Pathogens can be transmitted through contaminated food, water, or objects contaminated with feces. This route is responsible for diseases like cholera and hepatitis A.
- Vector-Borne Transmission: Certain diseases are transmitted by vectors, such as mosquitoes (e.g., malaria, dengue fever), ticks (e.g., Lyme disease), and fleas (e.g., bubonic plague). Vectors can carry the pathogen from an infected host to a susceptible host.
- Vertical Transmission: Vertical transmission occurs from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. Examples include mother-to-child transmission of HIV and congenital rubella syndrome.
- Zoonotic Transmission: Zoonotic diseases are transmitted from animals to humans. Contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, consumption of contaminated animal products, and insect vectors can facilitate zoonotic transmission. Examples include rabies (from infected animals) and avian influenza (from birds).
- Nosocomial Transmission: Nosocomial or healthcare-associated infections occur in healthcare settings. Pathogens can spread within hospitals through contaminated medical equipment, healthcare workers, or contact with infected patients.
- Waterborne and Foodborne Transmission: Contaminated water or food can transmit diseases when ingested. Examples include waterborne diseases like cholera and foodborne diseases like salmonellosis.
Understanding the causes and modes of transmission is essential for preventing and controlling communicable diseases. Public health measures such as vaccination, good hygiene practices, vector control, and quarantine can help mitigate the spread of these diseases.
What are the 4 main types of communicable diseases?
The four types of communicable diseases include the following:
- Bacterial Diseases: These are diseases caused by bacteria. Bacterial infections can affect various parts of the body and lead to a wide range of illnesses. Common bacterial diseases include:
- Tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
- Strep throat (caused by Streptococcus pyogenes)
- Cholera (caused by Vibrio cholerae)
- Lyme disease (caused by Borrelia burgdorferi)
- Urinary tract infections (caused by various bacteria, including Escherichia coli)
- Viral Diseases: Viral infections are caused by viruses, which are smaller than bacteria and require host cells to replicate. Viral diseases can be widespread and have a significant impact on public health. Common viral diseases include:
- Influenza (caused by influenza viruses)
- HIV/AIDS (caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
- COVID-19 (caused by SARS-CoV-2)
- Hepatitis (caused by hepatitis viruses, including hepatitis A, B, and C)
- Common cold (caused by various rhinoviruses and coronaviruses)
- Fungal Diseases: Fungal infections are caused by various types of fungi. These infections can affect the skin, nails, respiratory system, and other body parts. Common fungal diseases include:
- Athlete’s foot (caused by dermatophyte fungi)
- Candidiasis (caused by Candida species)
- Aspergillosis (caused by Aspergillus species)
- Ringworm (caused by dermatophyte fungi)
- Pneumocystis pneumonia (caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii)
- Parasitic Diseases: Parasitic infections are caused by parasites, which can be protozoa, helminths (worms), or ectoparasites like ticks and mites. These infections often affect various body systems and can be transmitted through different routes. Common parasitic diseases include:
- Malaria (caused by Plasmodium parasites)
- Schistosomiasis (caused by Schistosoma worms)
- Giardiasis (caused by the protozoan Giardia lamblia)
- Scabies (caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei)
- Toxoplasmosis (caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii)
It’s important to note that within each of these categories, there are numerous specific diseases caused by different strains or species of pathogens. Communicable diseases can vary in their severity, transmission routes, and geographic distribution, and they often require specific prevention and treatment strategies. Public health measures, including vaccination, hygiene practices, and vector control, play a crucial role in controlling the spread of communicable diseases.
What is the epidemiological triad in community health nursing?
The epidemiological triad is a fundamental concept in epidemiology that helps to understand the factors and interactions that contribute to the occurrence of disease in a population. In community health nursing, this concept is used to analyze and address health issues within communities.
The epidemiological triad consists of three components:
- Host: The host is the human or animal that can be affected by the disease. In community health nursing, the host refers to individuals or the community itself. Factors related to the host include age, sex, genetics, immunization status, behaviors, and overall health. Understanding the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the population is essential for assessing health risks and planning interventions.
- Agent: The agent is the microorganism or factor that causes the disease or health condition. This can include infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, parasites, or non-infectious agents like chemicals, toxins, or lifestyle factors. Community health nurses study the agents involved in diseases affecting their communities to identify specific threats and design appropriate prevention and control strategies.
- Environment: The environment encompasses the external factors and conditions that influence the occurrence and spread of disease. It includes physical, social, economic, and cultural factors. In community health nursing, the environment refers to the conditions within the community, such as sanitation, access to healthcare, housing, education, socioeconomic status, and community norms. These factors can either promote health or create conditions that increase the risk of disease.
In community health nursing, the epidemiological triad serves as a framework for understanding how diseases originate, spread, and can be prevented or controlled within a community. Community health nurses use this model to:
- Assess the health status and characteristics of the community (host).
- Identify the specific agents causing diseases or health problems.
- Evaluate the environmental conditions and factors that contribute to health issues.
- Develop targeted interventions and strategies to promote health, prevent disease, and address health disparities within the community.
By addressing the interactions between the host, agent, and environment, community health nurses can develop comprehensive and effective public health programs, health education initiatives, and healthcare interventions to improve the well-being of the community they serve.
What is the epidemiology of infectious diseases?
The epidemiology of infectious diseases focuses on various aspects related to the occurrence and spread of these diseases. Here are key components of the epidemiology of infectious diseases:
- Disease Occurrence and Patterns:
- Incidence: This refers to the number of new cases of an infectious disease in a population during a specific time period. It helps measure the rate of disease occurrence and identify trends.
- Prevalence: Prevalence indicates the total number of existing cases of a disease in a population at a given time. It provides insights into the burden of the disease.
- Endemic: An infectious disease is considered endemic when it persists at a relatively stable level within a geographic area or population.
- Epidemic: An epidemic occurs when there is a sudden and significant increase in the number of cases of an infectious disease within a defined area or population.
- Pandemic: A pandemic is a global epidemic, where a disease spreads across multiple countries and continents.
- Determinants and Risk Factors:
- Epidemiologists study the factors that influence the occurrence of infectious diseases, including host factors (e.g., age, immunity, genetics), agent factors (e.g., type of pathogen, virulence), and environmental factors (e.g., sanitation, climate, population density).
- Identifying risk factors helps in understanding why some individuals or communities are more vulnerable to specific infections.
- Modes of Transmission:
- Understanding how infectious diseases are transmitted is essential for controlling their spread. Epidemiologists classify modes of transmission as direct (person-to-person), indirect (via contaminated objects or the environment), airborne, vector-borne (via vectors like mosquitoes), and more.
- Reservoirs and Carriers:
- Reservoirs are sources where infectious agents can persist and multiply. Reservoirs can be humans, animals, or the environment.
- Carriers are individuals who can harbor and transmit the infectious agent without showing symptoms themselves. Identifying carriers is crucial for disease control.
- Outbreak Investigation:
- Epidemiologists play a pivotal role in investigating disease outbreaks by identifying the source of the outbreak, assessing risk factors, and implementing control measures to contain the spread.
- Surveillance and Monitoring:
- Ongoing surveillance systems help track the incidence and prevalence of infectious diseases. Monitoring data allows public health officials to detect trends, plan interventions, and assess the impact of control measures.
- Vaccination and Immunization Programs:
- Epidemiologists evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination programs in preventing infectious diseases and analyze vaccine coverage rates to identify gaps.
- Public Health Interventions:
- Epidemiological findings guide the development of public health interventions, such as quarantine measures, treatment protocols, and education campaigns to promote preventive behaviors.
- Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases:
- Epidemiologists monitor and respond to emerging infectious diseases (e.g., COVID-19) and re-emerging diseases (e.g., measles resurgence) to prevent and mitigate their impact.
- Global Health: Infectious diseases often transcend borders, so epidemiologists collaborate internationally to address global health threats and promote disease control on a global scale.
In summary, the epidemiology of infectious diseases involves the systematic study of how these diseases occur, their determinants, modes of transmission, and the development of strategies to prevent, control, and manage them. It plays a critical role in safeguarding public health and minimizing the impact of infectious disease outbreaks.
What are the effects of infectious diseases on the health and safety of people?
Infectious diseases can have a wide range of effects on the health and safety of people, both at the individual and population levels. These effects can vary depending on the specific infectious agent, its mode of transmission, the availability of preventive measures, and the effectiveness of healthcare systems. Here are some of the key effects of infectious diseases:
a. Morbidity: Infectious diseases can cause illness, symptoms, and complications that can vary from mild to severe. Some infections lead to chronic health conditions or long-term disabilities. Examples include HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and hepatitis.
b. Mortality: In severe cases, infectious diseases can be fatal. They contribute significantly to global mortality, especially in regions with limited access to healthcare and resources. Examples include COVID-19, malaria, and HIV/AIDS.
c. Reduced Quality of Life: Even non-fatal infectious diseases can significantly reduce an individual’s quality of life. Symptoms such as fever, pain, fatigue, and discomfort can impair daily functioning and overall well-being.
d. Maternal and Child Health: Infectious diseases can have adverse effects on maternal and child health. For example, maternal infections like rubella can cause birth defects, while childhood infections like measles can lead to severe complications and death.
e. Antimicrobial Resistance: The misuse and overuse of antibiotics in treating infectious diseases contribute to antimicrobial resistance. This poses a global health threat by rendering antibiotics less effective and making infections harder to treat.
a. Healthcare Costs: Treating infectious diseases can be expensive, both for individuals and healthcare systems. Hospitalizations, medications, and laboratory tests can strain healthcare budgets.
b. Lost Productivity: Infectious diseases often lead to missed work or school days, reducing productivity and economic output. This is especially relevant for diseases with long recovery periods.
c. Travel and Trade Restrictions: During outbreaks, countries may implement travel and trade restrictions to contain the spread of infectious diseases. These restrictions can disrupt economies and supply chains.
a. Stigma and Discrimination: People with infectious diseases, especially those with highly stigmatized infections like HIV/AIDS or tuberculosis, may face discrimination, social isolation, and psychological distress.
b. Fear and Anxiety: Outbreaks of infectious diseases can lead to widespread fear and anxiety in communities. This can affect mental health and social cohesion.
Healthcare System Strain:
a. Overburdened Healthcare Facilities: Outbreaks can overwhelm healthcare facilities, leading to a shortage of beds, medical supplies, and healthcare workers. This can hinder the delivery of care for both infectious and non-infectious conditions.
b. Disruption of Routine Care: During outbreaks, routine healthcare services may be disrupted or delayed, impacting the management of chronic illnesses and preventive care.
Public Health Response:
a. Resource Allocation: Responding to infectious disease outbreaks requires significant resources, diverting attention and funding from other public health priorities.b. Healthcare Worker Safety: Healthcare workers are at increased risk of infection during outbreaks, and ensuring their safety is a critical concern.
a. School Closures: Infectious disease outbreaks can lead to the closure of schools and educational institutions to prevent transmission. This disrupts education and affects children’s learning and development.
Community and Social Disruption:
a. Community Isolation: Quarantine measures and social distancing can isolate communities, leading to social disruption and economic hardship.