Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
Choose two (2) questions to answer. Each answer should be one typed double-spaced page in length.
Indicate, in full, by question number, the question you are answering. You do not have to copy out the question. Submit your answers in order. Your answer to each question is expected to be about one typed double-spaced page in length. You must use complete sentences and proper grammar. Use a typical font and size (we can tell if you change the margins in order to submit a longer answer!).
Answer questions in your own words using your own examples rather than those of the text. If Canadian data is available, be sure to include it in your answers. References are not required because the only source needed to answer these questions is your text. If you do use outside sources, then you must provide the full citation; you will not improve your mark, however, by using outside references.
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of early and late development for boys and for girls?
- Suppose that you just started working in a daycare for infants. You are concerned with providing auditory and visual stimulation that will be detectable and pleasant for the infants.
- What are the visual capabilities and preferences of the neonate? of the 2-month-old?
- What are the auditory capabilities and preferences of the neonate?
- Compare and contrast Piaget’s views with Vygotsky’s views.
- Suppose you are an elementary-school teacher. What developmental trends and individual differences in attention might be useful for you to know when you are making curricular decisions and developing individual learning plans?
- Summarize research and conclusions with regard to how well IQ predicts
- scholastic achievement
- occupational success
- psychological adjustment
- Compare and contrast any two theories of language acquisition.
Expert Answer and Explanation
1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of early and late development for boys and for girls?
Early development in boys and girls can have a range of advantages and disadvantages. Here are some of the advantages and disadvantages:
Advantages of early development:
- Early development may be associated with higher intelligence, as children who mature earlier tend to score higher on cognitive tests.
- Early developers may have an advantage in physical activities and sports, as they may be stronger and more coordinated than their peers.
- Early development may lead to increased self-esteem and confidence, as children who are more mature may feel more capable and in control of their environment.
Disadvantages of early development:
- Children who mature early may face social challenges, as they may be perceived as different from their peers and may be excluded from social groups.
- Early developers may be more prone to risk-taking behavior, as they may feel more confident in their abilities and less afraid of consequences.
- Early development may lead to increased pressure and responsibilities, as children may be expected to perform at higher levels academically and socially.
On the other hand, late development can also have its own set of advantages and disadvantages:
Advantages of late development:
- Late developers may have more time to learn and master new skills, as they may have a longer period of childhood to develop.
- Late development may lead to increased self-esteem and confidence, as children may feel more capable and in control of their environment as they catch up to their peers.
- Late developers may face less social pressure to conform to certain expectations and may have more time to figure out their own interests and passions.
Disadvantages of late development:
- Late developers may face social challenges, as they may be perceived as different from their peers and may be excluded from social groups.
- Late development may lead to lower self-esteem and confidence, as children may feel less capable and in control of their environment compared to their peers.
- Late developers may struggle in physical activities and sports, as they may be weaker and less coordinated than their peers.
Overall, it’s important to keep in mind that each child is unique and will develop at their own pace. It’s important to support and encourage children no matter where they are in their development and to recognize that all children have their own strengths and abilities.
Compare and contrast Piaget’s views with Vygotsky’s views
Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky were two influential psychologists who developed theories of child development. Here is a comparison of their views:
- Piaget believed that children are active learners who construct their own understanding of the world through their experiences.
- He proposed that children go through four stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.
- Each stage is characterized by the development of new cognitive skills, such as the ability to think abstractly or to use logical reasoning.
- Piaget argued that children are not capable of reasoning at the same level as adults and that their understanding of the world is limited by their cognitive abilities.
- Vygotsky believed that children learn through social interactions with more knowledgeable others, such as parents, teachers, and peers.
- He proposed that children’s cognitive development is influenced by the cultural and social context in which they live.
- Vygotsky argued that children have the potential to reason at the same level as adults and that their understanding of the world is shaped by their interactions with others.
- Vygotsky also introduced the concept of the “zone of proximal development,” which refers to the difference between what a child can do independently and what they can do with the help of a more knowledgeable other.
In summary, Piaget and Vygotsky had different views on the role of social interactions in cognitive development. While Piaget emphasized the role of individual experiences in shaping a child’s understanding of the world, Vygotsky argued that social interactions are essential for cognitive development. Both theories have had a significant impact on our understanding of how children learn and develop.
4. Suppose you are an elementary-school teacher. What developmental trends and individual differences in attention might be useful for you to know when you are making curricular decisions and developing individual learning plans?
As an elementary school teacher, it would be useful to be aware of the following developmental trends and individual differences in attention when making curricular decisions and developing individual learning plans:
- Children’s attention span tends to increase as they get older. For example, a preschooler may only be able to focus for a few minutes at a time, while a second-grade student may be able to focus for up to 20 minutes.
- Children’s ability to filter out distractions and concentrate on a task tends to improve as they get older.
- Children’s ability to switch between tasks and multitask tends to improve as they get older.
- Some children may have a naturally shorter attention span than others, regardless of their age.
- Children may have different attention patterns and preferences, such as preferring to work in short bursts or needing longer periods of uninterrupted time to focus.
- Children may have different levels of motivation and engagement with tasks, which can affect their attention span.
- Children may have different learning styles, such as visual, auditory, or kinesthetic, which may affect their attention span and ability to focus on certain tasks.
In order to make curricular decisions and develop individual learning plans that are effective and tailored to the needs of each student, it is important to consider these developmental trends and individual differences in attention. This may involve incorporating a variety of teaching strategies, such as hands-on activities, visual aids, and opportunities for movement, to engage students and keep their attention focused. It may also involve providing breaks and opportunities for movement, as well as setting clear expectations and goals for each task to help students stay focused and on track.
Compare and contrast any two theories of language acquisition
There are many theories of language acquisition, each with its own unique perspective on how children learn language. Here is a comparison of two such theories:
Theory #1: The Nativist Theory
- The nativist theory, proposed by Noam Chomsky, suggests that children are born with an innate, language-specific “language acquisition device” that helps them learn language.
- According to this theory, children are not simply learning language through exposure and reinforcement, but rather they are able to extract the underlying rules and structures of language from the input they receive.
- The nativist theory suggests that all humans have the same innate capacity for language and that children will naturally progress through the same stages of language development, regardless of the language they are exposed to.
- This theory emphasizes the role of nature in language acquisition and downplays the role of nurture.
Theory #2: The Social Interactionist Theory
- The social interactionist theory, proposed by Lev Vygotsky and further developed by others, suggests that language acquisition is a social process in which children learn language through interaction with more knowledgeable others, such as parents and caregivers.
- According to this theory, children learn language by participating in social interactions and by receiving feedback and reinforcement from others.
- The social interactionist theory emphasizes the role of nurture in language acquisition and downplays the role of nature.
- This theory also highlights the importance of the cultural and social context in which language is learned, as children’s language development is shaped by the language and communication practices of their community.
In summary, the nativist theory and the social interactionist theory offer different perspectives on the process of language acquisition. The nativist theory suggests that children are born with an innate capacity for language and that they are able to extract the underlying rules of language from the input they receive, while the social interactionist theory suggests that language acquisition is a social process in which children learn language through interaction with more knowledgeable others. Both theories have contributed to our understanding of language acquisition and the factors that influence it.
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