Unit VIII Assignment
Create the table below of the most prominent fallacies in thinking. Select 15 of the 44 “Dirty Tricks” outlined in your textbook beginning on page 313. Include each of the following items in your table: the name and number of the dirty trick, the decision-making that would lead someone to employ this trick, how you would detect it was being used, and one or two ways in which you might counter the strategy.
See the table headings below and help fill in below each heading. Can be a Word document.
Course Textbook(s) Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2012). Critical thinking: Tools for taking charge of your learning and your life (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Expert Answer and Explanation
|Decision making leading to use
|How to detect the trick
|How to counter the trick
|Dirty trick #16: Create misgivings: Where there is smoke, there is fire
|A manipulator uses this type of fallacy when they want to demean you or your efforts towards something (Bennet, 2013). They create false charges that they know that the audience will believe.
|This type of fallacy can be detected the moment an opponent includes rumor or false allegations in the course of argument as a way of taking off the heat from the issue which they were initially questioned of.
|We can counter this kind of trick by informing the audience that the allegations or rumors being spread are purely fabricated. That the lies being peddled lack credible evidence.
|Dirty trick: #17: Create a straw man
|This type of fallacy is used when the opponent, in this case known as “straw man”, wants to make you look bad through your case, and at the same time justify their case.
|One can detect this trick when the manipulator starts to portray the opponent’s well-intended message in a way that the audience will reject it.
|The best way to counter this trick is to emphasize your message and let the audience understand clearly the reason as to why you are supporting your message.
|Dirty trick #18: Deny or defend inconsistencies
|A manipulator uses this trick whenever they are caught in a contradiction. In most cases, the manipulator will try as much as possible to defend or deny the contradiction.
|We can detect this trick by listening keenly to what the manipulator is saying. It is through being keen that we can be able to under a deviation or contradiction.
|We can counter this trick by exposing the manipulator’s contradiction and let the audience know that the manipulator is trying to cover it up.
|Dirty trick #19: Demonize his side, sanitize yours
|This type of trick is used when the manipulator manipulates the audience to accept his or her message and reject that of their opponent by systematically using “good” words to represent themselves and “negative” words to represent the opponent (Bennet, 2013).
|One can detect this kind of trick by listening carefully to the manipulator’s message in order to understand their intention or the kind of information they are trying to put across.
|This kind of trick can be countered by letting the audience understand your message and intention. This will help to discredit the manipulator’s message
|Dirty trick #20: Evade questions, gracefully
|This kind of dirty trick is used when an opponent is faced with a tough question. In such a scenario, the opponent will often respond with a superficial answer or a joke just to get an avenue to get to the next question.
|We can detect this type of trick when an opponent deviates from answering the question asked, and instead resorts to engage in jokes to evade the question asked.
|Let the audience know the question asked and the response given by the opponent. This will help to show the opponent’s incompetence.
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