[ANSWERED 2023] Explain multicultural communication and its origins. Compare and contrast culture, ethnicity, and acculturation

Explain multicultural communication and its origins. Compare and contrast cultureExplain multicultural communication and its origins. Compare and contrast culture

Write a 650-1300 word response to the following questions:

  1. Explain multicultural communication and its origins.
  2. Compare and contrast culture, ethnicity, and acculturation.
  3. Explain how cultural and religious differences affect the health care professional and the issues that can arise in cross-cultural communications.
  4. Discuss family culture and its effect on patient education.
  5. List some approaches the health care professional can use to address religious and cultural diversity.
  6. List the types of illiteracy.
  7. Discuss illiteracy as a disability.
  8. Give examples of some myths about illiteracy.
  9. Explain how to assess literacy skills and evaluate written material for readability.
  10. Identify ways a health care professional may establish effective communication.
  11. Suggest ways the health care professional can help a patient remember instructions.

This assignment is to be submitted as a Microsoft Word document.

Expert Answer and Explanation

Culture and Literacy

Effective communication in healthcare is essential for providing quality patient care. The intersection of culture and literacy plays a significant role in how healthcare professionals interact with patients. Understanding the impact of culture and literacy on healthcare communication is crucial for delivering patient-centered care and ensuring positive health outcomes.

Multicultural Communication

Multicultural communication is the practice of effective communication between individuals from different cultural backgrounds. It aims to bridge the gap in understanding, minimize misunderstandings, and promote effective interaction between people of diverse cultural, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds (Park, 2020). The origins of multicultural communication can be traced back to the growing diversity and globalization of our world, where individuals from various cultures come into contact through work, travel, and migration. This has created a necessity for effective cross-cultural communication, leading to the development of this field.

Culture, Ethnicity, And Acculturation

Culture refers to the shared values, beliefs, customs, and traditions of a specific group, whereas ethnicity pertains to a person’s identification with a specific racial, national, or social group based on common cultural factors, including language, religion, or history (Dey et al., 2019). Acculturation, on the other hand, refers to the process of adopting the cultural traits or social patterns of a dominant culture, typically due to prolonged contact or assimilation. While culture and ethnicity are primarily about one’s identity, acculturation deals with the adaptation to another culture.

Cultural And Religious Differences in Health Care Professional

Cultural and religious differences can significantly affect healthcare professionals. They can lead to misunderstandings, misinterpretations, and hinder effective patient-provider communication. Issues that may arise in cross-cultural communications include variations in health beliefs and practices, differing perceptions of illness and wellness, and language barriers that can impede informed consent and shared decision-making (Young & Guo, 2020). To address religious and cultural diversity, healthcare professionals can employ various approaches such as cultural competency training, providing culturally tailored patient education materials, and fostering an environment of respect and sensitivity to patient needs.

Family Culture and Its Effect on Patient Education

Family culture also plays a critical role in patient education, as familial beliefs and values can influence an individual’s health-related decisions and adherence to treatment plans. Family culture has a significant impact on patient education. Families can play a key role in helping patients understand their condition, manage their treatment, and make informed decisions about their care (Young & Guo, 2020).

Family values and beliefs can influence how patients view their health and illness. Family communication patterns can also affect patient education. For example, families that have open and supportive communication may be more likely to encourage patients to ask questions and learn about their condition.

Addressing Religious and Cultural Diversity

Healthcare professionals should become familiar with the different cultural and religious backgrounds of the patients in their community. This can be done through reading, taking cultural competency training, or talking to patients and their families. It is also important to be respectful of patients’ cultural and religious beliefs.

This means being sensitive to patients’ needs and avoiding making assumptions about their beliefs and practices (Young & Guo, 2020). Additionally, healthcare organizations can promote diversity and inclusion within their workforce to better reflect the patient population they serve, further facilitating cross-cultural communication and understanding in healthcare settings.

Types Of Illiteracy

There are various types of illiteracy with each comprising of unique but correlated differences. Functional illiteracy refers to the inability to read and write at a level that is necessary to function in everyday life. Health illiteracy is the inability to understand and use health information to make informed decisions about one’s health (van Kessel et al., 2022). This includes being able to read and understand prescription labels, medical records, and other health-related materials.

Digital illiteracy is the inability to effectively use digital devices and navigate the internet for information and communication. Cultural illiteracy is the lack of knowledge and understanding of one’s own or other cultures, including their history, customs, and traditions. On the other hand, numeracy illiteracy is the inability to understand and work with numbers and mathematical concepts.

Illiteracy As a Disability

Illiteracy can be considered a disability when it significantly hinders an individual’s ability to participate in essential activities, such as reading prescription labels, understanding medical instructions, and accessing healthcare information (van Kessel et al., 2022). This limitation can lead to adverse health outcomes and reduced quality of life. In some cases, illiteracy may be associated with learning disabilities or cognitive impairments, further emphasizing its role as a disability.

Myths About Illiteracy

There are several misconceptions about illiteracy that need to be clarified. Firstly, illiteracy is not solely an individual’s fault or a result of their lack of effort; it can be influenced by various factors, including access to education and learning resources. Secondly, equating illiteracy with a lack of intelligence is unfair and inaccurate; many illiterate individuals have other valuable skills and knowledge (van Kessel et al., 2022). Additionally, it is a misconception that illiterate adults cannot learn to read or write. With the right support and resources, many adults can improve their literacy skills. Lastly, illiteracy is a significant issue that affects a substantial number of individuals, and addressing it is crucial for personal and societal development.

Assessing Literacy Skills

Healthcare professionals can assess literacy skills through direct conversations, using health literacy assessment tools, or observing a patient’s ability to follow written instructions. They can also evaluate written materials for readability by using readability assessment tools like the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (van Kessel et al., 2022). The goal is to ensure that materials are written at a level that matches the patient’s literacy skills.

Establishing Effective Communication

Healthcare professionals can establish effective communication by using plain and simple language, avoiding medical jargon, speaking slowly and clearly, and encouraging patients to ask questions. Using visual aids, such as diagrams or pictures, can also enhance understanding. Actively listening to patients, providing written instructions, and confirming comprehension are essential for effective communication (Kwame & Petrucka, 2021). Effective communication within healthcare hinges on using plain and simple language, avoiding medical jargon, speaking slowly and clearly, and actively listening to patients. Healthcare professionals should encourage patients to ask questions and confirm comprehension, possibly using visual aids to enhance understanding.

Helping Patients Remember Instructions

Healthcare professionals can employ various strategies to assist patients in retaining and recalling instructions effectively. These methods include repetition to reinforce critical points, the provision of clear and concise written instructions, encouraging patients to take notes during the discussion, offering digital resources or audio recordings of instructions for reference, confirming comprehension by asking patients to recap the information, scheduling follow-up appointments to review and reinforce instructions, and involving family members or caregivers in the conversation to provide additional support and reminders (Kwame & Petrucka, 2021). These approaches contribute to improved patient understanding and adherence to healthcare instructions, ultimately enhancing the quality of care and patient outcomes.


Recognizing the influence of culture and literacy in healthcare communication is fundamental to providing holistic and patient-centered care. By acknowledging and respecting cultural differences and addressing literacy barriers, healthcare professionals can build trust, enhance patient understanding, and improve health outcomes. In an increasingly diverse healthcare landscape, embracing cultural sensitivity and promoting health literacy are essential steps toward achieving effective and compassionate healthcare communication.


Dey, B. L., Alwi, S., Yamoah, F., Agyepong, S. A., Kizgin, H., & Sarma, M. (2019). Towards a framework for understanding ethnic consumers’ acculturation strategies in a multicultural environment: A food consumption perspective. International Marketing Review36(5), 771-804.

Kwame, A., & Petrucka, P. M. (2021). A literature-based study of patient-centered care and communication in nurse-patient interactions: barriers, facilitators, and the way forward. BMC nursing20(1), 1-10.

Park, J. S. Y. (2020). Translating culture in the global workplace: Language, communication, and diversity management. Applied Linguistics41(1), 109-128.

van Kessel, R., Wong, B. L. H., Clemens, T., & Brand, H. (2022). Digital health literacy as a super determinant of health: More than simply the sum of its parts. Internet interventions27.

Young, S., & Guo, K. L. (2020). Cultural diversity training: the necessity of cultural competence for health care providers and in nursing practice. The health care manager39(2), 100-108.

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What is the origin of multicultural communication?

Multicultural communication has roots in the historical and social developments of diverse societies. The concept emerged as a response to the increasing interconnectedness of the world, driven by globalization, migration, and advancements in communication technologies. Here are some key factors contributing to the origin of multicultural communication:

  1. Globalization: The process of globalization, which gained momentum in the 20th century, led to increased interaction and integration among people from different cultures. As borders became more porous, and economies and societies became more interdependent, the need for effective communication across cultural boundaries became apparent.
  2. Migration: Migration has been a significant factor in the multicultural composition of societies. People moving across borders bring with them their cultural backgrounds, languages, and communication styles. This cultural diversity necessitates new approaches to communication that can bridge the gaps between various linguistic and cultural groups.
  3. Cultural Studies: The academic field of cultural studies, which gained prominence in the mid-20th century, played a crucial role in shaping multicultural communication. Scholars in this field explored how culture influences communication and vice versa. They highlighted the importance of understanding cultural nuances in communication to avoid misunderstandings and promote effective interaction.
  4. Civil Rights Movements: Movements advocating for civil rights and social justice, such as the African American civil rights movement in the United States, drew attention to the importance of recognizing and respecting cultural differences. These movements paved the way for increased awareness of cultural diversity and the need for inclusive communication practices.
  5. Advancements in Communication Technologies: The development of communication technologies, particularly the internet and social media, has played a role in connecting people across the globe. As individuals from different cultural backgrounds engage in online communication, the challenges and opportunities of multicultural interaction have become more apparent.
  6. Intercultural Communication Studies: The academic discipline of intercultural communication emerged to study and address the challenges of communication between people from different cultures. Scholars in this field explore topics such as cultural sensitivity, cross-cultural communication competence, and the impact of culture on communication patterns.

What is multiculturalism in communication?

Multiculturalism in communication refers to the practice and recognition of diverse cultural perspectives, languages, and communication styles within a given society or context. It emphasizes the coexistence of different cultural backgrounds and aims to create an inclusive environment where individuals from various cultures can interact and communicate effectively. Multicultural communication acknowledges and values the richness that cultural diversity brings to interpersonal and societal exchanges.

Key aspects of multiculturalism in communication include:

  1. Cultural Sensitivity: Multicultural communication emphasizes the importance of being aware and respectful of cultural differences. This involves understanding and appreciating the unique customs, beliefs, and communication norms of various cultural groups.
  2. Inclusivity: An essential component of multicultural communication is creating an inclusive environment where individuals from different cultural backgrounds feel welcome and valued. This involves promoting equal opportunities for communication and participation regardless of cultural identity.
  3. Cross-Cultural Competence: Multicultural communication encourages the development of cross-cultural competence, which refers to the ability to communicate effectively and appropriately with individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds. This includes being adaptable, open-minded, and possessing the skills to navigate cultural differences.
  4. Language Diversity: In multicultural communication, language diversity is a central consideration. This involves recognizing and accommodating various languages spoken within a community or organization. Effective communication strategies may include multilingual approaches, translation services, or language accommodations.
  5. Cultural Exchange: Multicultural communication promotes cultural exchange and dialogue. It encourages the sharing of perspectives, ideas, and experiences among individuals from different cultural backgrounds, fostering mutual understanding and cooperation.
  6. Media Representation: In the context of media and communication industries, multiculturalism involves the fair and accurate representation of diverse cultures. This includes showcasing a variety of voices, stories, and perspectives in media content to avoid stereotypes and promote a more nuanced understanding of different cultures.
  7. Education and Training: Multicultural communication is often supported by educational initiatives and training programs that aim to enhance cultural awareness and communication skills. This includes providing individuals with the knowledge and tools to navigate cultural diversity effectively.
  8. Promotion of Social Cohesion: By fostering effective communication across cultural boundaries, multicultural communication contributes to the promotion of social cohesion. It helps build bridges between individuals and communities, reducing misunderstandings and conflicts that may arise from cultural differences.

Multicultural Communication Examples

Multicultural communication manifests in various contexts, and examples can be observed in everyday life, business, education, media, and other spheres. Here are some examples of multicultural communication:

  1. Language Accommodations in the Workplace:
    • In a multinational workplace, employees may come from diverse linguistic backgrounds. Employers may implement language accommodations, such as providing translated materials, offering language training, or using multilingual communication tools to ensure effective understanding and collaboration.
  2. Cross-Cultural Business Negotiations:
    • During international business negotiations, individuals from different cultures need to navigate diverse communication styles and expectations. Being aware of cultural nuances, such as communication hierarchy, negotiation approaches, and non-verbal cues, is crucial for successful cross-cultural business interactions.
  3. Cultural Awareness Training in Education:
    • Educational institutions may conduct cultural awareness training for students and faculty to promote understanding and respect for diverse cultures. This can include discussions, workshops, and activities that enhance cross-cultural competence and foster an inclusive learning environment.
  4. Multilingual Customer Service:
    • Companies operating in multicultural settings often provide customer service in multiple languages. This ensures that customers from various linguistic backgrounds can communicate their needs and receive assistance effectively. This approach is common in industries such as hospitality, tourism, and e-commerce.
  5. Media Representation of Diversity:
    • In the media, efforts to represent diverse cultures contribute to multicultural communication. TV shows, movies, and advertisements that showcase characters and stories from different cultural backgrounds help break stereotypes and promote a more accurate and inclusive portrayal of society.
  6. Community Outreach Programs:
    • Community organizations and government agencies may engage in multicultural communication through outreach programs. These initiatives involve using culturally sensitive communication strategies to connect with and serve diverse communities, addressing their specific needs and concerns.
  7. Intercultural Collaboration in Research:
    • In academic settings, researchers often collaborate across borders and cultures. Effective multicultural communication is vital for these collaborations to succeed, involving clear communication of ideas, understanding research methodologies, and acknowledging cultural differences in academic practices.
  8. Cultural Sensitivity in Healthcare:
    • Healthcare professionals encounter patients from various cultural backgrounds. Multicultural communication in healthcare involves understanding patients’ cultural beliefs, practices, and communication styles to provide more personalized and effective care. This may include using interpreters or translated materials.
  9. Multicultural Advertising Campaigns:
    • Advertisers may tailor their campaigns to appeal to diverse audiences. This could involve incorporating culturally relevant imagery, messaging, and themes that resonate with different cultural groups, avoiding stereotypes and fostering a positive connection with the target audience.
  10. Diplomacy and International Relations:
    • Diplomats and international relations professionals engage in multicultural communication when representing their countries. Effective diplomacy requires understanding the cultural context, diplomatic protocols, and communication styles of other nations to build positive relationships and resolve conflicts.

Build a slide presentation (PowerPoint preferred) of the hypothetical health promotion plan you developed in the first assessment. Then, implement your health promotion plan

What is the importance of multicultural communication?

Multicultural communication holds significant importance in today’s globalized and diverse world for several reasons:

  1. Fostering Understanding and Respect:
    • Multicultural communication promotes understanding and respect among individuals from different cultural backgrounds. By acknowledging and appreciating cultural diversity, people can develop empathy and avoid misunderstandings based on cultural differences.
  2. Effective Global Collaboration:
    • In a world where business, education, and research often span international borders, multicultural communication is essential for effective collaboration. Professionals and researchers need to navigate diverse communication styles, cultural norms, and expectations to achieve common goals.
  3. Conflict Resolution:
    • Cultural misunderstandings can lead to conflicts. Multicultural communication skills are crucial for resolving disputes and misunderstandings diplomatically. Understanding cultural perspectives helps find common ground and facilitates peaceful resolutions.
  4. Enhancing Business Success:
    • In the business world, understanding the cultural nuances of clients, customers, and partners is key to success. Effective multicultural communication can lead to better negotiation outcomes, stronger business relationships, and improved market penetration.
  5. Promoting Inclusivity in Education:
    • Multicultural communication in educational settings creates inclusive learning environments. Students from diverse backgrounds feel valued and represented, leading to better academic outcomes and a richer educational experience for everyone.
  6. Cultural Sensitivity in Healthcare:
    • In healthcare, cultural competence is vital for providing quality and patient-centered care. Multicultural communication ensures that healthcare professionals understand patients’ cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and practices, leading to more effective and respectful care.
  7. Media Representation and Social Cohesion:
    • Multicultural communication in media promotes accurate and positive representations of diverse cultures. This helps break stereotypes, fosters a sense of belonging among different communities, and contributes to social cohesion by celebrating diversity.
  8. Cross-Cultural Diplomacy:
    • Diplomats and international relations professionals rely on multicultural communication to build positive relationships between nations. Understanding cultural nuances, diplomatic protocols, and communication styles is crucial for successful diplomacy and international cooperation.
  9. Personal Growth and Enrichment:
    • Individuals who develop multicultural communication skills often experience personal growth and enrichment. Exposure to different perspectives broadens one’s worldview, encourages open-mindedness, and enhances adaptability in various social and professional settings.
  10. Addressing Social Injustices:
    • Multicultural communication plays a role in addressing social injustices by fostering dialogue and understanding. It helps shed light on issues related to discrimination, inequality, and cultural insensitivity, contributing to social awareness and advocacy for positive change.



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