Which two landmarks would you consider most representative of late nineteenth-century Western culture the so-called “Age of Materialism”?
- Which two landmarks would you consider most representative of late nineteenth-century Western culture the so-called “Age of Materialism”? Explain why.
- How did advancing technology affect the arts of the late nineteenth century? Provide specific examples.
Expert Answer and Explanation
Landmarks of the Age of Materialism
The age of materialism was coupled with the domination of philosophers who had idealist agenda for power and autonomy. Among the landmarks of the age of materialism is the development of the industrial era and the urban scene through the development of art. The industrial era entailed massive improvements in the economy of the west, where there were numerous inventions that led to the production of a more economically rigid society (Taylor, 2018).
The developments included Cornelius Vanderbilt’s railway industries, which were closely followed by Andrew Carnegie’s steel and John. D. Rockefeller’s oil refining (Zepke, 2017).
These developments in the age of materialism were aimed at improving the movement of people around the world as well as the sources of power for industrial plants throughout the world. With time, Henry Ford also invented the first earth-driven locomotives, and the wright brothers invented the first airplanes, an invention that contributed to the intensity of the first world war which was to come a few years later (Zepke, 2017).
Upper classes represented loyalty
The development of modern art is also a crucial landmark in the age of materialism. Throughout the industrial revolution, there was the development of social classes, where the upper classes represented loyalty, and was used to rule the lower classes. Painters represented these ideologies of oppression of the lower class using art such as paintings.
A good example is Jean-Francois Millet’s painting, Oil on Canvas, which shows people of the lower class working in farms (Basile, 2018). It represents the 1848 rebellions that the lower class people had in their oppositions to working in bad conditions with the sporadic urban revolts.
How Advancing Technology affected Arts of the 19th Century
There are many ways in which the advance of technology created changes in the arts of the 19th century. The birth of photography specifically created realism in visual arts. In 1836, William Fox Talbot served as a major revolutionist in the age of materialism through his development of the camera, which was used to record still images of live events that happened (Jaspers & Pieters, 2016).
Through the rise in photography, eyewitness accounts were made more surreal, and it challenged romanticism. Also, in a large way the types of painting changed through the introduction of technology and the industrial revolutions. Jean-Francois Millet was seen as the peasant painter through his numerous representations of the oppressed farm workers, with his most famous painting being ‘Gleaner.
’ Before him, paintings were based more on creativity, fashion, and other less impulsive forms.
Technology has also made art more available where the accessibility of images, presentations, and performances was made easier. The painters in the 19th century also advanced from sculptures to more advanced 3D like paintings that were easier to share and carried even more intense message (Jaspers & Pieters, 2016).
With technology, there was more creativity, as painters would aim their art to be like that represented by cameras and photography forms. For instance, the use of special frames for their different pieces of art was practiced extensively in this era. Lastly, through technology, it was easier for painters to make more original art, as it would be hard to copy the art of someone who has already obtained the patents for their work.
In a large way, technology led to the revolution of art in a positive way.
Basile, J. (2018). Misreading Generalised Writing: From Foucault to Speculative Realism and New Materialism. Oxford Literary Review, 40(1), 20-37.
Jaspers, E. D., & Pieters, R. G. (2016). Materialism across the life span: An age-period-cohort analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111(3), 451.
Taylor, S. (2018). Moving beyond materialism: Can transpersonal psychology contribute to cultural transformation. The International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 36 (2), 147-159.
Zepke, S. (2017). The Animist Readymade: Towards a Vital Materialism of Contemporary Art. In Animism in Art and Performance (pp. 235-252). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
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Impact of technology on art essay
Technology has had a profound impact on the art world, transforming the way artists create and share their work, and the way audiences experience and interact with art. In this essay, we will explore some of the ways that technology has influenced the art world and the implications of these changes.
One of the most significant impacts of technology on art has been the democratization of the creative process. Digital tools and software have made it easier and more accessible for artists to create and manipulate images, music, and other forms of art. This has resulted in a more diverse range of artists and styles, as well as new forms of expression that were previously impossible.
The rise of social media and online platforms has also transformed the way artists can showcase and share their work. Artists can now reach a global audience with just a few clicks, bypassing traditional gatekeepers such as galleries and museums. This has opened up new opportunities for emerging artists to gain exposure and recognition and has led to the creation of online communities where artists can share their work and collaborate with one another.
Create immersive experiences
Furthermore, technology has also enabled new forms of art, such as virtual reality and augmented reality. These mediums allow artists to create immersive experiences that blur the lines between the physical and digital worlds. This has resulted in new possibilities for interactive and experiential art, and has challenged traditional notions of what constitutes “art.
However, while technology has brought many positive changes to the art world, it has also raised concerns about the impact of technology on the authenticity and value of art. Some critics argue that digital art is less valuable than traditional forms of art because it can be easily reproduced and lacks the physicality and uniqueness of traditional art forms.
Additionally, the rise of artificial intelligence and machine learning has also led to questions about the role of technology in the creative process. Some artists use AI to generate art, raising questions about the authenticity of the work and the role of the artist in the creative process.
In conclusion, technology has had a profound impact on the art world, transforming the way artists create and share their work, and the way audiences experience and interact with art. While there are concerns about the impact of technology on the authenticity and value of art, it is clear that technology has opened up new possibilities and has the potential to continue to shape the art world in significant ways.
How has digitalization of arts affected the world
The digitalization of arts has had a significant impact on the world, transforming the way we create, consume, and experience art. Here are some ways that digitalization of arts has affected the world:
- Increased Accessibility: Digitalization has made it easier for artists to create and share their work with a global audience. Online platforms and social media have created new opportunities for artists to reach wider audiences, bypassing traditional gatekeepers such as galleries and museums. This has led to greater diversity in the art world, as artists from different backgrounds and regions can now showcase their work.
- New Forms of Art: Digitalization has enabled new forms of art, such as digital paintings, virtual reality, and augmented reality. These new forms of art are more interactive and immersive, blurring the lines between the physical and digital worlds.
- Enhanced Collaboration: Digitalization has made it easier for artists to collaborate with each other, regardless of geographic location. Online tools and platforms allow artists to share their work, exchange ideas, and work together in real-time.
- Preservation of Art: Digitalization has enabled the preservation of art in a digital format. This has become particularly important for historical artifacts, where digital preservation can ensure that these pieces of art are accessible to future generations.
- New Challenges: Digitalization has also presented new challenges for the art world. For instance, the authenticity and value of digital art are still being debated. Additionally, digital piracy and copyright infringement are becoming more prevalent, making it difficult for artists to protect their work.
How did the industrial revolution affect art and literature?
The Industrial Revolution had a significant impact on art and literature, changing the way artists and writers approached their craft and the subject matter they portrayed. Here are some ways in which the Industrial Revolution affected art and literature:
- The Emergence of Realism: The Industrial Revolution led to a shift towards realism in art and literature. Artists and writers began to depict the world as it really was, portraying the harsh realities of industrialization, including poverty, pollution, and social inequality.
- New Artistic Techniques: The Industrial Revolution introduced new materials and technologies that artists and writers could use to create their work. For example, new pigments and paints allowed artists to create more vibrant and realistic colors, while printing presses enabled writers to produce their work more quickly and efficiently.
- The Rise of the Middle Class: The Industrial Revolution created a new middle class that had disposable income and leisure time to appreciate art and literature. This led to a growing market for art and literature, with artists and writers catering to the tastes and interests of this new audience.
- The Impact of Industrialization: The Industrial Revolution had a profound impact on society, and this was reflected in art and literature. Many artists and writers were critical of industrialization, portraying it as a force that dehumanized workers, destroyed the environment, and undermined traditional values and beliefs.
- New Genres: The Industrial Revolution also led to the emergence of new literary and artistic genres, such as science fiction and industrial landscape painting. These genres reflected the technological and social changes of the time and allowed artists and writers to explore new themes and ideas.
Negative impact of technology on art
While technology has brought many positive changes to the world of art, it has also had some negative impacts. Here are some negative impacts of technology on art:
- Loss of Authenticity: With the increasing use of digital tools in the creation of art, there is a concern that the authenticity of the artwork may be lost. Digital manipulation can alter the original work in ways that may be difficult to detect, leading to questions about the integrity and value of the artwork.
- Reduced Physical Interaction: The digitalization of art has also led to a reduction in physical interaction between the viewer and the artwork. The experience of seeing a work of art in person, with its textures, colors, and dimensions, can be lost when the artwork is viewed online or on a screen.
- Reproduction and Piracy: Technology has made it easier to reproduce and distribute copies of artwork, leading to concerns about piracy and copyright infringement. This can negatively impact the market for original artwork, as well as the income and recognition of the artist.
- Dependence on Technology: Technology has become an essential tool for many artists, but it can also create a dependence that limits creativity and experimentation. Some artists may feel pressured to conform to digital trends and techniques, rather than exploring their own unique styles and mediums.
- Digital Divide: Not all artists have access to the technology and resources needed to create digital artwork, leading to a digital divide between those who can afford the latest tools and techniques and those who cannot. This can limit the diversity and inclusivity of the art world.
How was the working class created by the industrial revolution?
The Industrial Revolution led to the creation of a new working class, as traditional agricultural and craft-based economies were replaced by industrial manufacturing. Here are some ways in which the working class was created by the Industrial Revolution:
- Urbanization: The Industrial Revolution led to a migration of people from rural areas to urban centers, where new factories and industries were being established. This influx of people created a large pool of labor for the emerging industrial economy.
- Division of Labor: The emergence of factory-based production required the division of labor into specific tasks. Workers were no longer skilled artisans, but instead performed repetitive tasks on factory production lines.
- Wage Labor: With the decline of the traditional system of apprenticeship and guilds, workers began to sell their labor in exchange for wages. This created a new relationship between workers and employers, with the latter having more control over the working conditions and wages of the former.
- Factory System: The factory system brought together large numbers of workers in a single location, where they worked long hours under strict supervision. The harsh working conditions, low wages, and lack of job security led to the formation of labor unions and protests by workers.
- Child Labor: The Industrial Revolution also led to the exploitation of child labor in factories and mines. Children as young as five or six were often employed in dangerous and physically demanding jobs, with little or no education or protection.