[2023] Why is understanding the health care system at the local level important to consider when planning an EBP implementation? Conduct research and solicit

DQ 1

Why is understanding the health care system at the local level important to consider when planning an EBP implementation? Conduct research and solicit anecdotal evidence from your course preceptor that you will take into consideration for your own change project.

Why is understanding the health care system at the local level important to consider when planning an EBP implementation? Conduct research and solicit anecdotal evidence from

Why is understanding the health care system at the local level important to consider when


DQ 2

Compare and contrast two change theories and/or nursing theories. Determine which theory makes the most sense for implementing your specific EBP intervention. Why? Has your preceptor used either theory, and to what result? And just add yes my preceptor to whatever theory

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Other Answered Questions:

SOLVED! Describe the difference between a nursing practice

SOLVED! Discuss how elimination complexities can affect

SOLVED!! Research legislation that has occurred within the last 5 years at the state or federal level as a result of nurse advocacy

SOLVED! In this assignment you will propose a quality

ANSWERED!! Mrs. Allen is a 68-year-old African American who presents to the clinic for prescription refills. The patient indicates that she has noticed shortness of breath which started about 3 months ago

ANSWERED!! Explain how you would inform this nurse

Why is a Basic Understanding of Evidence-Based Research Appraisal Important to Nursing?


Nursing is a profession that relies heavily on evidence-based practice to provide optimal care to patients. Evidence-based research plays a crucial role in informing nursing practice, guiding decision-making, and improving patient outcomes. In this article, we will explore the significance of having a basic understanding of evidence-based research appraisal in nursing and its impact on healthcare delivery.

What is evidence-based research?

Evidence-based research refers to the systematic investigation of a particular topic or question using rigorous methods and techniques. It involves the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data to generate valid and reliable findings. This type of research provides a scientific foundation for nursing practice and helps healthcare professionals make informed decisions.

The importance of evidence-based research in nursing:

Enhancing patient outcomes:

By integrating evidence-based research into nursing practice, healthcare professionals can ensure that their interventions and treatments are based on the best available evidence. This approach promotes patient safety, improves clinical outcomes, and reduces the risk of adverse events.

Improving nursing practice:

Evidence-based research helps nurses stay up-to-date with the latest advancements in healthcare. It allows them to critically evaluate existing practices, identify areas for improvement, and implement evidence-based interventions to enhance the quality of care they provide.

Guiding decision-making:

In complex healthcare situations, nurses often face critical decisions that can significantly impact patient outcomes. By relying on evidence-based research, nurses can make informed decisions that are supported by scientific evidence, ensuring the best possible care for their patients.

The role of evidence-based research appraisal:

Evaluating the quality of research:

One of the key aspects of evidence-based research appraisal is assessing the quality of the studies being reviewed. Nurses need to be able to critically evaluate the design, methodology, and rigor of research articles to determine their credibility and relevance to their practice.

Assessing the validity and reliability of findings:

Understanding how to appraise evidence-based research enables nurses to assess the validity and reliability of research findings. This skill allows them to determine the applicability of the research to their patient population and clinical setting.

Benefits of understanding evidence-based research appraisal in nursing:

Identifying best practices:

Having a basic understanding of evidence-based research appraisal helps nurses identify best practices in their field. They can evaluate different studies and synthesize the evidence to determine the most effective interventions and approaches to care.

Promoting evidence-based interventions:

By being skilled in research appraisal, nurses can advocate for the implementation of evidence-based interventions within their healthcare settings. This promotes a culture of continuous improvement and ensures that patients receive the most appropriate and effective care.

Ensuring patient safety:

Through evidence-based research appraisal, nurses can identify potential risks or harmful practices and advocate for safer alternatives. This helps prevent adverse events and improves patient safety outcomes.

Enhancing professional growth:

Understanding evidence-based research appraisal enhances nurses’ professional growth and development. It allows them to contribute to the body of nursing knowledge, engage in research activities, and become leaders in evidence-based practice.

Challenges in evidence-based research appraisal:

Limited resources:

Access to research articles and databases may be limited, especially in resource-constrained healthcare settings. Nurses need support from their organizations to overcome this challenge and gain access to relevant research literature.

Complexity of research methodologies:

Understanding different research methodologies and statistical analyses can be challenging. Nurses must continuously update their knowledge and skills in research appraisal to effectively evaluate studies.

Keeping up with current evidence:

The field of nursing is constantly evolving, and new research emerges regularly. Nurses must stay updated with the latest evidence and findings through continuous education and engagement with professional networks.

Strategies for developing skills in evidence-based research appraisal:

Continuous education and professional development:

Nurses should actively participate in workshops, conferences, and online courses focused on evidence-based research appraisal. These opportunities enhance their skills and knowledge in critically appraising research studies.

Collaboration with researchers and experts:

Engaging with researchers and experts in the field allows nurses to gain insights into the research process and learn from their expertise. Collaborative efforts foster a culture of evidence-based practice and promote interdisciplinary collaboration.

Utilizing evidence-based practice guidelines and tools:

Evidence-based practice guidelines and appraisal tools provide structured frameworks for evaluating research studies. Nurses should familiarize themselves with these resources and incorporate them into their practice.


A basic understanding of evidence-based research appraisal is crucial for nurses to deliver high-quality care. It empowers nurses to make informed decisions, improve patient outcomes, and contribute to the advancement of nursing practice. By developing their skills in research appraisal and staying up-to-date with the latest evidence, nurses can ensure the delivery of safe and effective care based on the best available research.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

  1. What is evidence-based research appraisal? Evidence-based research appraisal refers to the process of critically evaluating research studies to determine their quality, validity, and relevance to nursing practice.
  2. How does evidence-based research appraisal benefit nursing? Understanding evidence-based research appraisal helps nurses identify best practices, promote evidence-based interventions, ensure patient safety, and enhance their professional growth.
  3. What are the challenges in evidence-based research appraisal? Some challenges include limited resources, the complexity of research methodologies, and the need to keep up with the constantly evolving body of evidence.
  4. How can nurses develop skills in evidence-based research appraisal? Nurses can develop their skills through continuous education, collaboration with researchers and experts, and utilizing evidence-based practice guidelines and tools.
  5. Where can nurses access evidence-based research literature? Nurses can access research literature through online databases, institutional libraries, and professional organizations dedicated to nursing research.

Change Theories: Understanding the Dynamics of Organizational Transformation


Change is an inevitable part of life, and it holds true for organizations as well. In today’s fast-paced and dynamic business environment, organizations must adapt and evolve to stay relevant and competitive. Change theories provide valuable frameworks and insights to help organizations navigate the complexities of transformation successfully. This article explores the concept of change theories, their significance in organizational change, and the key theories that shape the understanding of change processes.

Understanding Change Theories

Change theories provide a systematic approach to understand, analyze, and manage the process of organizational change. These theories offer insights into the factors that influence change, the stages of transition, and the strategies required to facilitate successful transformation. By applying change theories, organizations can minimize resistance, maximize employee engagement, and achieve sustainable change outcomes.

Lewin’s Change Model

Lewin’s Change Model, developed by psychologist Kurt Lewin, emphasizes three stages of change: unfreezing, transition, and refreezing. Unfreezing involves creating awareness and readiness for change, while transition focuses on implementing new practices. Refreezing solidifies the change by reinforcing new behaviors and making them the new norm.

Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model

Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model, formulated by renowned change expert John Kotter, provides a step-by-step process for successful change implementation. It involves creating a sense of urgency, building a guiding coalition, developing a vision, communicating the vision, empowering employees, generating short-term wins, consolidating gains, and anchoring the change in the organizational culture.


The ADKAR Model, developed by Prosci, focuses on individual change. It stands for Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability, and Reinforcement. This model highlights the importance of addressing each stage to ensure that individuals embrace and adapt to change effectively.

The Satir Change Model

The Satir Change Model, developed by family therapist Virginia Satir, recognizes change as a transformational process that impacts individuals’ beliefs, emotions, and behaviors. It involves four stages: late status quo, foreign element, chaos, and integration. This model emphasizes the need for open communication, trust-building, and supportive relationships during change.

The Nudge Theory

The Nudge Theory, popularized by behavioral economists Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein, suggests that indirect and subtle interventions can influence people’s behavior and decision-making. By understanding human biases and leveraging nudges, organizations can facilitate change without imposing forceful measures.

The Systems Theory

The Systems Theory views organizations as complex systems with interconnected components. It recognizes that change in one part of the system affects the entire system. This theory emphasizes the need to consider the interdependencies and feedback loops within organizations to implement effective change initiatives.

The Diffusion of Innovation Theory

The Diffusion of Innovation Theory, developed by sociologist Everett Rogers, explains how new ideas, products, or practices spread within a social system. It categorizes individuals into innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards, based on their willingness to adopt change. This theory helps organizations understand the dynamics of change adoption and devise targeted strategies.

The Appreciative Inquiry Theory

The Appreciative Inquiry Theory focuses on leveraging an organization’s strengths and positive aspects to drive change. Instead of problem-solving, it encourages organizations to explore what works well and envision a desired future. This theory promotes a positive and strengths-based approach to change management.

The Kubler-Ross Change Curve

The Kubler-Ross Change Curve, often referred to as the “five stages of grief,” describes the emotional journey individuals go through during change. The stages include denial, resistance, exploration, commitment, and acceptance. Understanding these stages helps leaders anticipate and address emotional reactions during change.

The Bridges Transition Model

The Bridges Transition Model, developed by William Bridges, focuses on the personal and psychological aspects of change. It outlines three stages: ending, neutral zone, and new beginning. This model emphasizes the importance of managing the emotional and psychological transitions individuals experience during change.

The Prosci ADKAR Model

The Prosci ADKAR Model, an extension of the original ADKAR Model, provides a structured approach to managing change at the individual level. It emphasizes five key elements: Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability, and Reinforcement. This model helps organizations address the people side of change effectively.

The Three-Stage Theory of Change

The Three-Stage Theory of Change, proposed by Kurt Lewin, suggests that change involves three interconnected stages: unfreezing, movement, and refreezing. Unfreezing requires challenging the existing mindset, movement involves implementing change, and refreezing stabilizes the change by establishing new norms and practices.

The Burke-Litwin Change Model

The Burke-Litwin Change Model considers the multiple factors that influence organizational change. It identifies twelve organizational dimensions, including external environment, mission and strategy, leadership, culture, and structure. This model helps organizations analyze the complexity of change and develop targeted interventions.

The Agile Change Management Model

The Agile Change Management Model, inspired by agile software development methodologies, focuses on flexibility and adaptability in managing change. It promotes iterative and collaborative approaches, allowing organizations to respond swiftly to changing circumstances and adjust their strategies accordingly.


Change theories provide valuable frameworks for understanding, managing, and implementing organizational change. From Lewin’s Change Model to the Agile Change Management Model, each theory offers unique perspectives and strategies to navigate the complexities of transformation. By leveraging these theories, organizations can enhance their change management practices, foster employee engagement, and drive successful outcomes.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

  1. What are change theories? Change theories are frameworks that provide insights into the process of organizational change, helping organizations understand, analyze, and manage transformation effectively.
  2. Why are change theories important? Change theories help organizations minimize resistance, maximize employee engagement, and achieve sustainable change outcomes by offering systematic approaches and strategies.
  3. How many stages are there in Lewin’s Change Model? Lewin’s Change Model consists of three stages: unfreezing, transition, and refreezing.
  4. What is the role of the Nudge Theory in change management? The Nudge Theory suggests that subtle interventions can influence behavior and decision-making during change, enabling organizations to facilitate transformation without imposing forceful measures.
  5. How does the Kubler-Ross Change Curve help organizations during change? The Kubler-Ross Change Curve helps organizations understand the emotional journey individuals go through during change, enabling leaders to anticipate and address emotional reactions effectively.



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