[ANSWERED 2023] Explain in detail the basic infrastructure for digital organizations and electronic commerce (EC)

Explain in detail the basic infrastructure for digital organizations and electronic commerce (EC)

Explain in detail the basic infrastructure for digital organizations and electronic commerce (EC)
Explain in detail the basic infrastructure for digital organizations and electronic

Module 1 Assignment:

Essay Questions:

  1. Explain in detail the basic infrastructure for digital organizations and electronic commerce (EC).
  2. Explain in detail how ethical issues create pressures or constraints on organizational operations and the use of IT.
  3. Explain in detail major managerialactivities that are supported or enabled by IT.
  4. Explain in detail concepts behind Web-based systems andinformation infrastructure including details of the major components of the infrastructure.

Required Textbooks:

Information Technology for Management: Digital Strategies for Insight, Action, and Sustainable Performance (10th Edition) , 10th
ISBN: 978-1118897782 

Turban, E., Volonino, L., Wood, G. (2015). Information Technology for Management: Digital strategies for Insight, Action, and Sustainable Performance (10th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. (ISBN: 978-1-118-89778-2)

Expert Answer and Explanation

Components of Digital Technology Infrastructure

Technology has dramatically changed many human activities, including information management. Information management has been improved by technology through what is known as information technology (IT) (Mohtaramzadeh, Ramayah & Jun-Hwa, 2018). IT can be described as using computers to gather, store, salvage, send, and manipulate information or data.

In other words, IT is the application of technology to solve organizational or business problems on a larger scale. As opposed to entertainment or personal technologies, IT is used to improve business operations, including production, management, and human resource activities, such as recruitment. IT was made possible by the introduction of the computer (Fatima et al., 2017). The purpose of this assignment is to answer regarding information technology and its impacts on management.

The Basic Infrastructure for Digital Organizations and Electronic Commerce (EC)

Digital organizations and EC should have the following basic infrastructure for them to function properly. The first infrastructure is the internet backbone. An internet backbone a high information route between large, strategically interconnected networks. This infrastructure is used to connect digital organizations with their clients and suppliers (Elia, Margherita & Passiante, 2020). The second infrastructure is a mobile telecommunication.

Digital organizations need cellular networks to enjoy communication services and wireless broadband internet. The third infrastructure is the communication satellite. Digital organizations cannot function without proper communication connectivity. Hence, a communication satellite is used to provide information services. The fourth infrastructure is network connectivity (Gonçalves et al., 2016). Network infrastructure provides businesses with connectivity and allows them to share data. One such network is Wi-Fi.

EC and digital organizations also need platforms to develop, deploy, and operate software services often cloud-based. For instance, Amazon uses its online platform to display its products and services. Also, through its platform, Domino’s Pizza Delivery uses its platform to receive orders from clients and communicate with them through their phones. User devices are also infrastructure needed by these organizations to effectively run their operations (Elia et al., 2020).

The devices include mobile phones, computers, and laptops. The devices can act as IT input or output. For instance, organizations can stay in touch with their suppliers through mobile phones. The last infrastructure is cloud computing (Turban, Volonino, Wood, 2015). Cloud computing has provided digital companies with hosting and storage spaces.

How Ethical Issues Create Pressures or Constraints on Digital Organizations or IT Use

Codes of ethics were in IT were created to ensure the effective and safe use of the technology. One of the known ethical principles created to oversee the IT infrastructure’s ethical use is privacy and confidentiality. This ethical principle was developed to prevent digital organizations from interfering with their clients’ privacy (Ren & Jackson, 2020).

Another ethical principle is autonomy. This principle prevents organizations from sharing clients’ identities with unauthorized people without the clients’ explicit permission. Though these ethical codes have ensured accountable use of collected data, they have also created constraints or pressures the organizations that limited their abilities to use the IT infrastructure.

First, privacy and confidentiality can hinder information sharing in that many protocols are involved in seeking consent on whether to use the data. Second, ethical issues have also stipulated the kind of information that should be gathered and stored. For instance, organizations cannot ask their workers about sexual orientation or health status, even if the information is relevant to the institution.

Someh et al. (2019) argue that ethical issues can make it hard for IT experts to use the infrastructures if they do not adhere to stipulated ethical principles and regulations. The authors note that getting approval from authorized agencies to use the IT infrastructure can take time and hinder its use.

Major Managerial Activities Supported or Enabled by IT

IT has greatly impacted the roles of managers. According to Karami, Samimi, and Ja’fari (2020), the key managerial tasks include planning, leading, organizing, leading, and controlling. IT has improved the efficiency of managers regarding these tasks in the following ways. First, IT has improved the accuracy and reliability of planning. Karami et al. (2020) note that IT has improved planning accuracy by providing managers with accurate and credible data they can use in making effective decisions during planning.

IT has provided managers with data on stock, sales, and production, and this information can guide their critical thinking on the approach to take during planning (Turban et al., 2015). Through IT, managers can collaborate with other leaders and stakeholders within the organization to discuss and decide on better plans through a network.

IT has also improved managers’ organization role. IT systems, such as Project Management Software, have helped review, assess, evaluating, and delegating tasks. The technology has also helped managers keep track of and performance of their employees. Space management software has helped managers keep their workplace organized, helping them utilize office space (Karami et al., 2020). IT has also supported controlling, one of the roles of managers. Through IT, managers have gained access to data to compare performance to standards, measure performance, and rate workers who have performed well.

Concepts Behind Web-Based System and Information Infrastructure

Web-based IT systems are information systems that apply internet technologies to deliver services and information to users or other applications. The key objective of web-based systems is to deliver data through hypertext-based principles (Abd Wahab, 2016). Web-information system comprises one or more web apps that function together with both formation and non-web components to deliver information. There are two key concepts of web-based systems, and they include database and web browser.

Wen browser is an app used to access data on the world wide web. In other words, the component is used to retrieve data on WWW and then displays it on the user’s device page. The database is used to store and analyze data to be displayed on the web page. Platforms and databases are the major components of web-based systems. Platforms are used to display websites, while the database is used for data management. Another fundamental component of a web-based system is internet connectivity.

Turban et al. (2015) argue that there must be internet connectivity for a web-based system to be hosted on a cloud-based system. Digital organizations can access internet connectivity if a form of Wi-Fi from telecommunication companies providing data services. Computers, mobile phones, and laptops are other components of web-based systems.


IT has made great impacts on digital organizations and EC. Some of the digital infrastructure components include internet backbone, mobile telecommunication, a communication satellite, network connectivity, platforms, cloud computing, and user devices. IT has supported managerial activities by providing accurate and credible data that managers can use to make critical and effective decisions when planning and controlling organizational operations. IT has also enabled the creation of management software, such as project management software, that managers can use to conduct their daily activities, such as delegation of tasks and assessment of workers.


Abd Wahab, A. (2016). Designing an information infrastructure to support research degree programmes: identifying information and technology needs (Doctoral dissertation, Newcastle University). http://theses.ncl.ac.uk/jspui/handle/10443/3149

Elia, G., Margherita, A., & Passiante, G. (2020). Digital entrepreneurship ecosystem: How digital technologies and collective intelligence are reshaping the entrepreneurial process. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 150, 119791. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119791

Fatima, A., Abbas, A., Ming, W., Zaheer, A. N., & Akhtar, M. U. H. (2017). Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(9), 1606-1613. https://journal.tsue.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/3260

Gonçalves, R., Martins, J. L., Branco, F., Perez Cota, M., & Oliveira, M. A. Y. (2016). Increasing the reach of enterprises through electronic commerce: A focus group study aimed at the cases of Portugal and Spain. http://repositorio.inesctec.pt/handle/123456789/5734

Karami, M., Samimi, A., & Ja’fari, M. (2020). The Impact of Effective Risk Management on Corporate Financial Performance. Advanced Journal of Chemistry-Section B, 144-150. https://dx.doi.org/10.22034/ajcb.2020.109686

Mohtaramzadeh, M., Ramayah, T., & Jun-Hwa, C. (2018). B2B e-commerce adoption in Iranian manufacturing companies: Analyzing the moderating role of organizational culture. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 34(7), 621-639. https://doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2017.1385212

Ren, S., & Jackson, S. E. (2020). HRM institutional entrepreneurship for sustainable business organizations. Human Resource Management Review, 30(3), 100691. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2019.100691

Someh, I., Davern, M., Breidbach, C. F., & Shanks, G. (2019). Ethical Issues in Big Data Analytics: A Stakeholder Perspective. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 44, pp-pp. https://doi.org/10.17705/1CAIS.04434

Turban, E., Volonino, L., Wood, G. (2015). Information Technology for Management: Digital strategies for Insight, Action, and Sustainable Performance (10th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. (ISBN: 978-1-118-89778-2)

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Legal and Ethical Issues in E-commerce

E-commerce has revolutionized the way business is conducted, allowing consumers to purchase goods and services online from the comfort of their homes. However, along with its convenience and efficiency, e-commerce also presents a range of legal and ethical challenges that businesses and consumers must navigate. In this article, we will explore some of the most prominent legal and ethical issues in the world of e-commerce.


E-commerce has flourished, offering unparalleled convenience. However, its growth has given rise to complex legal and ethical issues that require careful consideration.

Data Privacy and Security

Data breaches and the unauthorized use of personal information have become increasingly common. Ensuring the security of customer data is not only a legal requirement but also an ethical obligation.

Intellectual Property Rights

The digital nature of e-commerce raises concerns about copyright infringement, trademark violations, and piracy. Businesses must respect intellectual property rights to maintain a fair marketplace.

Consumer Protection

Online transactions come with risks, such as receiving counterfeit goods or falling victim to scams. Legal frameworks and ethical business practices must prioritize consumer protection.

Online Reviews and Manipulation

Fake reviews and manipulated ratings can mislead consumers. E-commerce platforms need to combat these practices to maintain their integrity.

Digital Divide and Accessibility

Not everyone has equal access to the internet. E-commerce companies must address the digital divide and ensure their platforms are accessible to all.

Cybersecurity and Fraud

E-commerce websites are vulnerable to cyberattacks and fraud. Implementing robust cybersecurity measures is crucial to safeguard customer information.

Cross-Border Transactions

Cross-border e-commerce introduces complexities related to international laws, taxes, and customs regulations. Businesses must comply with these while ensuring smooth transactions.

Taxation in E-commerce

Determining the appropriate taxation for online transactions can be challenging. Businesses should navigate the intricate landscape of e-commerce taxation responsibly.

Environmental Impact

The environmental toll of packaging, shipping, and returns in e-commerce cannot be ignored. Sustainable practices and eco-friendly options are imperative.

Ethical Sourcing and Fair Trade

Consumers demand transparency about product sourcing and production. E-commerce companies should uphold ethical sourcing practices and support fair trade.

Transparency and Honesty

Honesty in product descriptions and pricing builds trust. Transparency about terms, conditions, and fees contributes to a positive consumer experience.

Social Responsibility

E-commerce businesses have a role in social responsibility. Supporting social causes and giving back to the community enhances their reputation.


E-commerce’s rapid growth brings both opportunities and challenges. Navigating the legal and ethical landscape is essential for the sustainable and responsible growth of online businesses.

What are some of the ethical considerations that you practice when handling digital data?

When it comes to handling digital data, several ethical considerations guide responsible practices:

  1. Data Privacy: Respecting individuals’ privacy rights is paramount. Collect and use only the data necessary for your intended purpose and ensure consent is obtained when required.
  2. Transparency: Be upfront about the data you collect, how it will be used, and with whom it will be shared. Transparency builds trust with users and stakeholders.
  3. Data Security: Safeguard data from unauthorized access, breaches, and cyber threats. Implement robust security measures to protect sensitive information.
  4. Data Minimization: Collect only the data you need. Avoid overcollecting or retaining data beyond its purpose, reducing potential risks.
  5. User Control: Give users control over their data. Allow them to access, correct, or delete their information as per their preferences.
  6. Informed Consent: Obtain explicit consent from users before collecting and processing their data. Clearly explain the purpose and implications of data usage.
  7. Accuracy: Ensure the accuracy of the data you collect and use. Inaccurate data can lead to wrong decisions and harm.
  8. Non-Discrimination: Avoid using data to discriminate against individuals based on their attributes, such as race, gender, or socioeconomic status.
  9. Data Sharing: Share data responsibly and only with authorized parties. Avoid selling or sharing data without the user’s knowledge and consent.
  10. Accountability: Take responsibility for your data practices. Have mechanisms in place to address data-related concerns and incidents.
  11. Ethical AI: If using AI and machine learning, ensure fairness, transparency, and accountability in algorithmic decision-making.
  12. End-of-Life Data: When data is no longer needed, dispose of it securely. Unused data can still pose risks if not properly managed.
  13. Data Access Controls: Limit access to sensitive data only to authorized personnel. Implement strong access controls and monitor data usage.
  14. Long-Term Impact: Consider the long-term consequences of data collection and usage. Anticipate how data might be used or misused in the future.
  15. Continuous Review: Regularly review your data practices to ensure they remain aligned with evolving ethical standards and regulations.

What is E-commerce?

E-commerce, short for electronic commerce, refers to the buying and selling of goods and services over the internet. It involves a digital platform where businesses and consumers interact to conduct transactions, eliminating the need for physical stores or face-to-face interactions. E-commerce encompasses a wide range of activities, from online shopping and electronic payments to online auctions and digital marketplaces.

In the realm of e-commerce, customers can browse through product catalogs, make purchases, and complete transactions entirely online. This process often involves the use of websites, mobile apps, and other digital platforms that provide a user-friendly interface for shopping and making payments.

E-commerce has transformed the way people shop and businesses operate. It offers numerous benefits, such as convenience, access to a global market, reduced overhead costs, and the ability to personalize shopping experiences. Various forms of e-commerce exist, including business-to-consumer (B2C), business-to-business (B2B), consumer-to-consumer (C2C), and more.

In essence, e-commerce leverages the power of the internet and digital technologies to facilitate commercial activities, making it easier for businesses to reach customers and for consumers to access products and services from virtually anywhere in the world.

Understanding IT Infrastructure Components: Building Blocks for Modern Businesses

In today’s fast-paced digital landscape, a robust and efficient IT infrastructure is the backbone of every successful business. Whether you’re a small startup or a large enterprise, having a well-structured IT infrastructure can significantly impact your operations, productivity, and overall success. In this article, we will delve into the essential components that make up an IT infrastructure and explore their importance in keeping businesses competitive and agile.


IT infrastructure comprises a combination of hardware, software, networks, and services that enable the flow, processing, storage, and analysis of information within an organization. These components work harmoniously to ensure seamless communication, data management, and security across all business operations.

Hardware Components

Servers and Data Centers

Servers form the core of an IT infrastructure, serving as the central processing units that store and manage data and applications. Data centers house these servers, providing the necessary environment for their optimal performance, including cooling systems and backup power sources.

Network Devices

Efficient communication within an organization relies on network devices like routers, switches, and access points. These devices enable data to flow smoothly between different parts of the infrastructure, ensuring uninterrupted connectivity.

End-user Devices

End-user devices, such as laptops, desktops, tablets, and smartphones, allow employees to access and interact with the IT infrastructure. These devices play a vital role in enhancing productivity and enabling remote work.

Software Components

Operating Systems

Operating systems provide the foundation for running software applications on hardware. They manage resources, facilitate user interactions, and ensure the overall stability of the IT environment.

Application Software

Application software caters to specific business needs, ranging from office productivity tools to industry-specific applications. These software solutions streamline processes and improve efficiency across various departments.


Middleware acts as a bridge between different software applications, facilitating seamless communication and data exchange. It plays a crucial role in integrating various components of the IT infrastructure.

Data Management


Databases store and organize large volumes of data, making it easily accessible for analysis and decision-making. Effective database management is essential for maintaining accurate and up-to-date information.

Data Storage Solutions

Data storage solutions, including traditional storage devices and cloud-based solutions, ensure data availability and durability. They play a pivotal role in preventing data loss and facilitating disaster recovery.

Cybersecurity Measures

Firewalls and Intrusion Detection Systems

Firewalls and intrusion detection systems safeguard the IT infrastructure against unauthorized access and cyber threats. They monitor network traffic and enforce security policies to prevent potential breaches.

Encryption Protocols

Encryption protocols protect sensitive data from unauthorized access by converting it into unreadable code. This ensures that even if data is intercepted, it remains indecipherable without the proper decryption keys.

Cloud Services and Virtualization

Cloud Computing

Cloud computing offers scalable and flexible IT resources over the internet. It eliminates the need for extensive physical infrastructure and allows businesses to access computing power and storage on-demand.

Virtual Machines

Virtualization involves creating virtual versions of hardware resources, such as servers and storage devices. This technology enables efficient resource utilization and easy management of IT infrastructure.

IT Support and Management

IT Helpdesk

An IT helpdesk provides technical support to users, resolving issues and answering queries related to the IT infrastructure. Prompt support ensures uninterrupted operations.

IT Monitoring and Maintenance

Continuous monitoring and maintenance are vital to identify and address potential issues before they disrupt the IT environment. Regular updates and patches keep the infrastructure secure and up-to-date.

Scalability and Redundancy

Scalability allows businesses to expand or shrink their IT infrastructure based on demand. Redundancy ensures high availability by creating backup systems that can take over if primary systems fail.

The Future of IT Infrastructure

As technology continues to evolve, IT infrastructure will embrace innovations such as edge computing, 5G connectivity, and AI-driven automation. These advancements will further enhance performance, security, and adaptability.


A well-designed IT infrastructure is more than just a technical necessity; it’s a strategic advantage that enables businesses to thrive in a competitive landscape. By understanding the crucial components discussed in this article, organizations can make informed decisions to build a future-ready IT environment that supports their growth and innovation.


  1. What is the role of data centers in IT infrastructure? Data centers house servers and provide the necessary environment for optimal performance, ensuring reliable data storage and processing.
  2. How does virtualization contribute to scalability? Virtualization allows businesses to create and manage virtual resources, enabling them to scale their IT infrastructure easily based on changing demands.
  3. Why is cybersecurity crucial for IT infrastructure? Cybersecurity ensures the protection of sensitive data and prevents unauthorized access, safeguarding the integrity of the IT environment.
  4. What are the benefits of cloud services for businesses? Cloud services offer cost-effective scalability, accessibility, and flexibility, allowing businesses to adapt quickly to changing market conditions.
  5. How can businesses ensure the reliability of their IT infrastructure? Regular monitoring, maintenance, redundancy, and staying updated with technological advancements are key to maintaining a reliable IT infrastructure.



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