Identify a common perceptual, neurological, or cognitive issue and discuss contributing factors
Identify a common perceptual, neurological, or cognitive issue and discuss contributing factors. Outline steps for prevention or health promotion for the patient and family.
Expert Answer and Explanation
One common cognitive issue within the community setting is dementia. Dementia is characterized by the gradual deterioration of the brain with regards to thinking, memory, behavior, and the overall ability to undertake daily activities. Various elements constitute the risk factors of dementia among the general population. One of the main risk factors for dementia is the advancement in the age of an individual (Booker et al., 2016). Aging causes increased cell death within the brain leading to severe impacts of dementia on the patient. Other factors include genetics based on family history, smoking or alcohol use, cholesterol, and atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque). These factors can either be preventable through lifestyle changes while others cannot be prevented such as aging or genetic affiliation. Severe dementia can lead to Alzheimer’s disease which is irreversible and can have significant symptoms to the patent.
There are various ways in which a nurse can conduct disease prevention and health promotion for the patient and family. To begin with, sensitizing the patient and family on the non-preventable risks such as age and genetics are important in creating acceptance and support caring for the patients (Smith, 2016). Concerning the preventable risks, it is essential for nurses to provides patient awareness of the measures that can be taken to avoid the risks of getting the disease. for instance, sensitizing on lifestyle changes, improved exercises for the overweight or obese, and avoidance of smoking and use of alcohol can help promote health among the population. to address disease prevention, the nurses and healthcare practitioners can conduct community care where early diagnosis is conducted to identify the illness in its early stages and treat it before it gets severe and irreversible.
Booker, A., Jacob, L. E., Rapp, M., Bohlken, J., & Kostev, K. (2016). Risk Factors For Dementia Diagnosis In German Primary Care Practices. International Psychogeriatrics, 28(7), 1059-1065. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610215002082
Smith, G. E. (2016). Healthy cognitive aging and dementia prevention. American Psychologist, 71(4), 268. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0040250
Discuss characteristic findings for a stroke and how it affects the lives of patients and their families. Discuss the nurse’s role in supporting the patient’s psychological and emotional needs. Provide an example.
Expert Answer and Explanation
Impact of Stroke
The occurrence of a stroke happens when the overall supply of blood to the parts of the brain is reduced or interrupted which prevents the brain tissues from being supplied with sufficient nutrients and oxygen. Without brain cell oxygenation, they begin to die after a few minutes leading to a stroke and potentially cause permanent brain damage (He et al., 2018). There are two main causes of stroke including hemorrhagic stroke (evidenced by leaking or bursting artery due to head injuries or trauma from accidents) or ischemic stroke (evidenced by a blocked artery either by a clot or due to fat deposits inside the arteries). There are characteristics and symptoms associate with stroke with the prime including difficulty in speaking, paralysis in one side of the body, headache, and difficulties in walking. These symptoms vary in different stroke patients depending on the affected part of the brain (He et al., 2018). Risk factors associated with stroke can be divided into either lifestyle risk factors or medical risk factors. Lifestyle factors include obesity, physical inactivity, and use of alcohol or drugs while medical risk factors include high blood pressure, diabetes, and sleep apnea.
Nurses play a key role in supporting a patient’s psychological and emotional needs in various ways. for instance, a nurse can help provide patient education to the caregivers or family on how to deal with the symptoms exhibited by the patient. this reduces overdependence on medical professionals and improves the healing process (Dreyer et al., 2016). Nurses can also make use of the evidence-based practice to offer the patient the most available care, better treatment options, and improve the nurse-to-patient interactions. A nurse can also make use of spiritual care to instill hope and improve both the psychological and emotional needs of the patient.
Dreyer, P., Angel, S., Langhorn, L., Pedersen, B. B., & Aadal, L. (2016). Nursing roles and functions in the acute and subacute rehabilitation of patients with stroke: Going all in for the patient. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 48(2), 108-115. Doi: 10.1097/JNN.0000000000000191
He, W., Liu, Y., Feng, J., Huang, Q., Xu, J., Liu, X., … & Liu, H. (2018). The epidemiological characteristics of stroke in Hunan Province, China. Frontiers in neurology, 9, 583. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00583
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