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[ANSWERED 2022] Identify a common perceptual, neurological, or cognitive issue and discuss contributing factors

Identify a common perceptual, neurological, or cognitive issue and discuss contributing factors

Identify a common perceptual, neurological, or cognitive issue and discuss contributing factors. Outline steps for prevention or health promotion for the patient and family.

DQ1: Expert Answer and Explanation

Cognitive Issue

One common cognitive issue within the community setting is dementia. Dementia is characterized by the gradual deterioration of the brain with regards to thinking, memory, behavior, and the overall ability to undertake daily activities. Various elements constitute the risk factors of dementia among the general population. One of the main risk factors for dementia is the advancement in the age of an individual (Booker et al., 2016). Aging causes increased cell death within the brain leading to severe impacts of dementia on the patient. Other factors include genetics based on family history, smoking or alcohol use, cholesterol, and atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque). These factors can either be preventable through lifestyle changes while others cannot be prevented such as aging or genetic affiliation. Severe dementia can lead to Alzheimer’s disease which is irreversible and can have significant symptoms to the patent.

There are various ways in which a nurse can conduct disease prevention and health promotion for the patient and family. To begin with, sensitizing the patient and family on the non-preventable risks such as age and genetics are important in creating acceptance and support caring for the patients (Smith, 2016). Concerning the preventable risks, it is essential for nurses to provides patient awareness of the measures that can be taken to avoid the risks of getting the disease. for instance, sensitizing on lifestyle changes, improved exercises for the overweight or obese, and avoidance of smoking and use of alcohol can help promote health among the population. to address disease prevention, the nurses and healthcare practitioners can conduct community care where early diagnosis is conducted to identify the illness in its early stages and treat it before it gets severe and irreversible.


Booker, A., Jacob, L. E., Rapp, M., Bohlken, J., & Kostev, K. (2016). Risk Factors For Dementia Diagnosis In German Primary Care Practices. International Psychogeriatrics28(7), 1059-1065. Doi:

Smith, G. E. (2016). Healthy cognitive aging and dementia prevention. American Psychologist71(4), 268. Doi:

DQ 1: Alternative Answer

Health Promotion for Dementia

Cognitive issues come in different types, and each type can have unique symptoms. One of these issues is the dementia, and it is characterized by various symptoms. A personal with this cognitive condition will experience the loss of their memory, and they may experience challenges performing various familiar tasks including coming up with solutions to problems. Manifestation of the symptoms of this condition additionally include the inability of one to understand visual information, and they may not speak or write in a coherent manner (Rakesh et al., 2017). Besides, people with this cognitive disorder misplace things.

Various factors can alter one’s cognitive functioning, and ultimately cause this cognitive disorder. Certain classes of medications, for instance, can induce this disorder, and the risk may be high if one has to take medications to treat a lifetime illness such as Human Immunodeficiency Viral (HIV) infections. A class of pharmacological drugs that can increase one’s exposure to this condition is the anticholinergic medication. Still, the HIV infection, can cause this disorder if this infection progresses to an advanced stage (Carmeli & Imam, 2014). Encephalopathy describes a condition in which this infection adversely damages the brain. However, physical injuries as well as a number of diseases including the Parkinson’s can cause one to develop this disease.

The health promotion for dementia patients should focus on the prevention of the cognitive decline for at risk populations. It is important to recommend to the patient a diet that can improve their memory, and fish as well as fruits are known to be effective in terms of improving one’s memory. Another prevention is conducting medical examinations to identify the presence of certain medical conditions which can increase one’s risk of developing the disorder. It is also imperative to promote awareness to help at risk populations be aware of how they can prevent injuries (Budson & Solomon, 2015). Involving the family in planning for the treatment can be helpful in the sense that it encourages adherence to clinical instructions.


Budson, A. E., & Solomon, P. R. (2015). Memory Loss, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Dementia E-Book: A Practical Guide for Clinicians. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Carmeli, E., & Imam, B. (2014). Health promotion and disease prevention strategies in older adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Frontiers in public health2, 31. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2014.00031.

Rakesh, G., Szabo, S. T., Alexopoulos, G. S., & Zannas, A. S. (2017). Strategies for dementia prevention: latest evidence and implications. Therapeutic advances in chronic disease8(8-9), 121–136. doi:10.1177/2040622317712442.


Discuss characteristic findings for a stroke and how it affects the lives of patients and their families. Discuss the nurse’s role in supporting the patient’s psychological and emotional needs. Provide an example.

DQ 2: Expert Answer and Explanation

Impact of Stroke

The occurrence of a stroke happens when the overall supply of blood to the parts of the brain is reduced or interrupted which prevents the brain tissues from being supplied with sufficient nutrients and oxygen. Without brain cell oxygenation, they begin to die after a few minutes leading to a stroke and potentially cause permanent brain damage (He et al., 2018). There are two main causes of stroke including hemorrhagic stroke (evidenced by leaking or bursting artery due to head injuries or trauma from accidents) or ischemic stroke (evidenced by a blocked artery either by a clot or due to fat deposits inside the arteries). There are characteristics and symptoms associate with stroke with the prime including difficulty in speaking, paralysis in one side of the body, headache, and difficulties in walking. These symptoms vary in different stroke patients depending on the affected part of the brain (He et al., 2018). Risk factors associated with stroke can be divided into either lifestyle risk factors or medical risk factors. Lifestyle factors include obesity, physical inactivity, and use of alcohol or drugs while medical risk factors include high blood pressure, diabetes, and sleep apnea.

Nurses play a key role in supporting a patient’s psychological and emotional needs in various ways. for instance, a nurse can help provide patient education to the caregivers or family on how to deal with the symptoms exhibited by the patient. this reduces overdependence on medical professionals and improves the healing process (Dreyer et al., 2016). Nurses can also make use of the evidence-based practice to offer the patient the most available care, better treatment options, and improve the nurse-to-patient interactions. A nurse can also make use of spiritual care to instill hope and improve both the psychological and emotional needs of the patient.


Dreyer, P., Angel, S., Langhorn, L., Pedersen, B. B., & Aadal, L. (2016). Nursing roles and functions in the acute and subacute rehabilitation of patients with stroke: Going all in for the patient. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing48(2), 108-115. Doi: 10.1097/JNN.0000000000000191

He, W., Liu, Y., Feng, J., Huang, Q., Xu, J., Liu, X., … & Liu, H. (2018). The epidemiological characteristics of stroke in Hunan Province, China. Frontiers in neurology9, 583. Doi:

DQ 2: Alternative Answer

Providing Support to Stroke Patient

Stroke results either due to the blockage of the blood-flow to the brain or the unexpected bleeding in the brain, and it is associated with various clinical manifestations. Characteristic findings for this condition include difficulty maintaining a normal body balance, and an individual with this disease is at risk of falling or stumbling. In some cases, a stroke patient may find it difficult to speak and understand words because of the confusion that comes with this disease. Paralysis is a common manifestation of this condition, and one’s face or their limbs may become number, especially on one side of their body (Hill, Evans, & Forbat, 2015).

Stroke is inherently an adverse health condition, and it can alter one’s personal life and adversely affect their family members. A stroke patient may experience impaired functional mobility, and this may affect how they walk. The family may have to apply more efforts in helping assist such a patient to perform chores such as bathing. Assisting the patient to perform these chores can a times be a challenge for family members. Given that change of behavior is a manifestation of this condition, a patient in this state may experience the alteration of their behaviors. When they patients behave abnormally, family members may become stressed (Lucchetti, Prieto, & Damiano, 2019).

Nursing intervention is necessary for the patients to receive emotional and psychological support. For the nurses, offering support may involve talking to the patient about stroke and assuring these patients that they will heal. Additionally, the nurse may involve the patient in discussing personal as well as spiritual and concerns. Based on the information the patient provides in this context, they may work with psychologists and counselors to help provide holistic care to meet the needs of these patients (Flanagan &  Thornton, 2014).


Flanagan, B., &  Thornton, S. G. (2014). The Bloomsbury guide to pastoral care. London : Bloomsbury Continuum.

Hill, H., Evans, J. M., & Forbat, L. (2015). Nurses respond to patients’ psychosocial needs by dealing, ducking, diverting and deferring: an observational study of a hospice ward. BMC nursing14, 60. doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0112-8.

Lucchetti, G., Prieto, P. M. F., & Damiano, R. F. (2019). Spirituality, religiousness and health: From research to clinical practice. Cham: Springer.

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