In a paper of 1000-1250 words, compare and contrast the health status of your selected
Select an ethnic minority group that is represented in the United States (American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American, Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander). Using health information available from Healthy People, the CDC, and other relevant government websites, analyze the health status for this group.
In a paper of 1000-1250 words, compare and contrast the health status of your selected minority group to the national average. Include the following:
- Describe the ethnic minority group selected. Describe the current health status of this group. How do race and ethnicity influence health for this group?
- What are the health disparities that exist for this group? What are the nutritional challenges for this group?
- Discuss the barriers to health for this group resulting from culture, socioeconomics, education, and sociopolitical factors.
- What health promotion activities are often practiced by this group?
- Describe at least one approach using the three levels of health promotion prevention (primary, secondary, and tertiary) that is likely to be the most effective in a care plan given the unique needs of the minority group you have selected. Provide an explanation of why it might be the most effective choice.
- What cultural beliefs or practices must be considered when creating a care plan? What cultural theory or model would be best to support culturally competent health promotion for this population? Why?
Cite at least three peer-reviewed or scholarly sources to complete this assignment. Sources should be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and public health content.
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Expert Answer and Explanation
Health Disparity in Arizona’s American Indian Population
The unequal nature of the United States (U.S.) as a country is noticeable in the country’s social problems including the health gap, and this gap takes on different forms. The rates of mortality incidences, for instance, differ across the country’s minority and non-minority populations. The former tends to experience higher rates compared to the latter, and one can attribute this to a wide spectrum of factors including the low social and economic empowerment opportunities in minority communities.
However, the degree of the health disparity for a state may differ from that of the entire country, and one can notice this when comparing Arizona’s health gap rates to the country’s rates (Isaac et al., 2018). It is important to examine the health of American Indian Population in Arizona in terms of disparities, the barriers, promotion activities, and cultural considerations.
Profile of the Minority Group
Each U.S.’s state is diverse, and this is a case with Arizona which has white as well as minority populations including the Native Americans. Compared to other minorities including Hispanics, however, the American Indians are fewer. A high population of this minority population is found in Arizona, California and Oklahoma. These states host 31% of the country’s American Indian population. Based on the statistical data, this group consists of 1.7% of the U.S.’s population. 1.6 million Teenage Americans who are part of this group are below the adult age.
Arizona recognize this group as part of the state’s tribes. This group speak different native languages ranging from the Ponca to Sioux. This together with the education-based barriers can be impediments to access to the care for this group. Currently, the state has a number of American Indian tribes (Liddell et al., 2018). Examples include the Navajo, Hopi and Apache. Most of these tribes engage in spiritual and cultural activities which sometimes may contradict practices of the modern medicine.
The Health Gap for the Minority
The American Indians face health concerns which other minority groups struggle with. This group is socially and economically disadvantaged. The mortality rates for this population exceeds that of the U.S. by approximately 40%. One can attribute this to the high rates of mortality for this group to the prevalence of the cases of chronic diseases in this group. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) prepares and publishes reports on health, and according to this agency, the life expectancy for this group is below the national level (Adakai et al., 2018).
Equally, the quality of life for this group in Arizona is low compared to the national average. Individuals who are part of this group in the state of Arizona are likely to adopt poor nutritional health behaviors compared to the national population. For example, the rates of consumption of the sweetened beverages for this group reached 33%. Averagely, 28% of Americans use sweetened products.
Health Barriers for the Minority
People who identify as American Indians face various health obstacles which take on different forms. From the cultural perspective, the American Indians have an intrinsic view concerning the relationship between spirituality and health. For example, they would attach certain cultural meanings to the mental health issues, and this may cause a scenario where they do not seek medical care but rather resort to spiritual intervention. This population is socially and economically disadvantaged, and there are high rates of unemployment among members of this group.
Equally, the group struggles with high rates of illiteracy (Wille et al., 2017). Due to these social and economic barriers, Native Americans residing in Arizona are struggling with access to care, and because of lack of education, some may not get to learn about the appropriate health behaviors. Equally, there is low political representation for this group, and this poses the problem of lack of advocacy for this group.
Health Promotion Activities
Native Americans’ health practices intertwine with their spiritual and cultural practices, and their perceptions concerning health. This group adopts traditional health practices which involve the use of the alternative medicine. It common to see members of this race using herbs for the purpose of treating illnesses, and they attack spiritual values to the medicines. In certain cases, they may use manipulative therapy techniques to manage illnesses.
When treating an illness, they may hold ceremonies as well as pray. This is a way of using physical therapy while at the same time intervening spirituality to help promote the recovery of a person who is ill. When engaging in these activities, this group’s focus is to live in harmony with the environment, and connect to the earth (Fleischhacker et al., 2016). This not only helps improve the health of members of this group but it helps the group to attain spiritual wellbeing.
Primary Health Promotion
When working with American Indians, it is imperative that a provider focus on providing primary care to any patient from this group. For a provider, providing education can help manage the health needs of a patient, and when educating the patient, it is important to incorporate their beliefs and cultural values into this process. When educating the patient to adopt healthy practices, for example, a clinician may propose that the patient eat healthy traditional foods.
They should also integrate aspects of the patient’s spirituality into the education program. Using this intervention is important because it sensitizes the group on health issues, and help them avoid behaviors which may raise their risks of developing illnesses. It also empowers them to manage their own health while sticking to their cultural practices.
Cultural Beliefs and Practices
American Indians attach their health practices to their spirituality, and when planning for the care for a patient from this community, it is important to incorporate the cultural practices for this community into health plan. When preparing the plan of intervention, for example, a clinician should consider the patient’s spiritual practices.
This is because this group has a strong spiritual belief, and attach spiritual significance to health. It is equally critical to consider what this group believes about certain rituals, and incorporate the same in the plan. To effectively and holistically manage the health needs of a patient from this community, a provider can rely on the Culture Care theory to guide their decisions (Hidayat & Uliyah, 2019).
In conclusion, some Americans experience more barriers when making efforts to access care, compared to other Americans, and one can notice this difference when comparing access across racial groups. Arizona is one of the states where this problem occurs, and it part of the U.S.’s states with the most number of the American Indian communities.
This group struggles with health problems because of the socioeconomic disadvantages it experiences. This also occurs because of the cultural activities which sometimes may conflict the views of the modern medicine. Thus, there is need to incorporate the cultural, and spiritual practices of this group into care when caring for people who belong to the American Indian community.
Adakai, M., Sandoval-Rosario, M., Xu, F., Aseret-Manygoats, T., Allison, M., Greenland, K.J., & Barbour, K.E. (2018). HEALTH Disapiries Among Indians/ Alaskan Natives-Arizona, 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6747a4.htm.
Fleischhacker, S., Roberts, E., Camplain, R., Evenson, K. R., & Gittelsohn, J. (2016). Promoting Physical Activity Among Native American Youth: a Systematic Review of the Methodology and Current Evidence of Physical Activity Interventions and Community-wide Initiatives. Journal of racial and ethnic health disparities, 3(4), 608–624.Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-015-0180-1.
Hidayat, A., & Uliyah, M. (2019). The Effect of the Nursing Care Model Based on Culture to Improve the Care of Malnourished Madurese Children in Indonesia. Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences, 7(7), 1220–1225.Doi: https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.260.
Isaac, G., Finn, S., Joe, J. R., Hoover, E., Gone, J. P., Lefthand-Begay, C., & Hill, S. (2018). Native American Perspectives on Health and Traditional Ecological Knowledge. Environmental health perspectives, 126(12). Doi: https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1944.
What Are Health Disparities?
Health disparities refer to the differences in health outcomes and access to healthcare services experienced by various population groups. These disparities are often driven by social, economic, and environmental factors, leading to unequal distribution of health resources and opportunities.
Addressing health disparities is crucial for achieving equitable and accessible healthcare for all individuals, regardless of their background or characteristics.
Factors Contributing to Health Disparities
Socioeconomic status plays a significant role in determining health outcomes. People with lower income levels may face challenges in accessing quality healthcare, nutritious food, and safe living conditions, which can lead to adverse health effects.
Race and Ethnicity
Racial and ethnic minorities often experience higher rates of chronic illnesses and limited access to healthcare services compared to the majority population. This is influenced by systemic racism, discrimination, and biases within the healthcare system.
Health disparities can also be influenced by where people live. Rural communities, for instance, may have limited access to medical facilities and specialized care, making it difficult for residents to address health issues promptly.
Access to Healthcare
Unequal access to healthcare services, including health insurance coverage, can create barriers to preventive care and timely medical interventions, contributing to health disparities.
Impact on Vulnerable Populations
Children and Adolescents
Health disparities during childhood and adolescence can have long-term effects on individuals’ health and well-being. Lack of access to proper nutrition and healthcare can hinder proper growth and development.
Elderly populations may face unique challenges, such as limited mobility and chronic health conditions, which can exacerbate health disparities, especially when it comes to geriatric care.
Racial and Ethnic Minorities
Certain racial and ethnic groups are disproportionately affected by specific health conditions, and they may experience barriers in accessing culturally competent care.
Members of the LGBTQ+ community may encounter discrimination and stigmatization, impacting their mental and physical health, as well as access to appropriate healthcare.
People with Disabilities
Individuals with disabilities often face difficulties in accessing healthcare facilities and services, leading to disparities in health outcomes.
Root Causes of Health Disparities
Discrimination and Bias
Discrimination and bias within the healthcare system can result in differential treatment for certain individuals or groups, contributing to health disparities.
Health Education and Literacy
Limited health education and health literacy can hinder individuals from making informed decisions about their health, leading to disparities in health outcomes.
Healthcare System Inefficiencies
Issues like high healthcare costs, long waiting times, and lack of culturally sensitive care can deter individuals from seeking proper medical attention, leading to disparities in healthcare access.
Addressing Health Disparities
Implementing policies that promote health equity, address social determinants of health, and eliminate systemic biases can help reduce health disparities.
Engaging with local communities and implementing targeted interventions can have a significant impact on improving healthcare access and outcomes.
Health Education and Promotion
Promoting health literacy and empowering individuals to take charge of their health can positively influence health behaviors and outcomes.
Culturally Competent Care
Healthcare providers should receive training to understand and address the diverse needs of patients from various cultural backgrounds.
Successful Case Studies
Reducing Infant Mortality Rates in Disadvantaged Communities
Collaborative efforts between healthcare organizations and community stakeholders have led to a decline in infant mortality rates in underserved areas through better prenatal care and postnatal support.
Improving Diabetes Management in Minority Populations
Targeted educational programs and outreach initiatives have resulted in improved diabetes management and reduced complications in minority communities.
Future Perspectives and Challenges
Technological Advancements in Healthcare
Incorporating technology, such as telemedicine and health apps, can enhance healthcare access, especially for individuals living in remote areas.
Sustainable Solutions for Long-Term Impact
Solving health disparities requires long-term, sustainable strategies that address root causes and systemic issues within the healthcare system.
Health disparities continue to be a significant challenge in the healthcare landscape, impacting various vulnerable populations. Addressing these disparities requires collective efforts from policymakers, healthcare providers, and communities. By implementing targeted interventions, promoting health education, and addressing systemic biases, we can work towards achieving health equity for all individuals.
What are the major consequences of health disparities?
Health disparities can lead to poorer health outcomes, higher healthcare costs, and reduced overall quality of life for affected individuals.
How can individuals contribute to reducing health disparities?
Individuals can support organizations working to improve healthcare access, advocate for policy changes, and educate themselves and others about health disparities.
Are health disparities a recent phenomenon?
No, health disparities have existed for centuries, rooted in historical injustices and systemic biases.
How can we address language barriers in healthcare settings?
Healthcare facilities can employ interpreters and multilingual staff to ensure effective communication with patients who have language barriers.
What role does health insurance play in mitigating health disparities?
Health insurance coverage can improve access to healthcare services and reduce financial barriers for many individuals, thus contributing to narrowing health disparities.
Health Inequity vs. Health Disparity: Understanding the Differences
Health inequity and health disparity are terms frequently used in discussions about public health and healthcare. While they both describe variations in health outcomes among different population groups, they have distinct meanings and implications. In this article, we will explore the differences between health inequity and health disparity, and how these concepts impact healthcare access and outcomes.
Health disparity refers to the unequal distribution of health outcomes or healthcare access among different groups based on various factors, such as socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, gender, geographic location, and more. These disparities can manifest in differences in disease prevalence, health outcomes, life expectancy, and access to healthcare services.
The key feature of health disparities is that they are deemed as avoidable and unjust, arising from systemic and structural factors. For instance, racial and ethnic minorities may experience higher rates of certain health conditions due to social determinants of health, discrimination, or limited access to quality healthcare services.
Health disparities often highlight gaps in healthcare access and quality and require targeted interventions and policy changes to address the root causes and promote health equity.
Health inequity, on the other hand, goes beyond the mere observation of disparities and focuses on the root causes that lead to these disparities. Health inequity represents unjust and avoidable differences in health outcomes that are systemic and rooted in social injustice and discrimination.
These inequities result from historical and contemporary injustices, policies, and practices that disproportionately affect certain population groups. Health inequities can be perpetuated by unequal distribution of resources, limited access to education and employment opportunities, discriminatory policies, and societal biases.
Addressing health inequity requires a deeper examination of the social, economic, and political factors that contribute to disparities and a commitment to dismantling the systems that perpetuate these injustices.
Understanding the Differences
In summary, the key differences between health disparity and health inequity are:
- Health Disparity: Refers to the observed differences in health outcomes or access to healthcare among different groups. These disparities are often avoidable and stem from social determinants, bias, and systemic issues.
- Health Inequity: Focuses on the underlying causes of health disparities, which are rooted in social injustices, discrimination, and historical disadvantages. Health inequities highlight the unjust distribution of resources and opportunities that lead to disparate health outcomes.
Implications for Healthcare
Recognizing the distinction between health disparity and health inequity is crucial for healthcare practitioners, policymakers, and advocates. While addressing health disparities involves implementing targeted interventions to improve healthcare access and quality for marginalized groups, tackling health inequity demands transformative changes to the social and economic structures that perpetuate these injustices.
To achieve health equity, healthcare systems must prioritize culturally competent care, diverse representation in the workforce, and policies that address the social determinants of health. Additionally, promoting health education, community engagement, and policy advocacy are essential steps toward reducing health inequities.
Health disparities and health inequities are pressing challenges in public health and healthcare. While health disparities refer to the observed variations in health outcomes among different groups, health inequities delve into the root causes of these disparities, emphasizing the unjust and avoidable nature of the differences. Understanding the differences between these terms is crucial for devising effective strategies to promote health equity, improve healthcare access, and ensure fair and just health outcomes for all individuals, regardless of their backgrounds or characteristics.
Solutions to Healthcare Disparities: Working Towards Health Equity
Healthcare disparities, which refer to the unequal distribution of healthcare resources and outcomes among different population groups, continue to be a significant challenge in the healthcare system. These disparities are often influenced by social, economic, and cultural factors, leading to differences in access to healthcare services and health outcomes for various communities.
To promote health equity and ensure that everyone has equal access to quality healthcare, we must address these disparities through targeted and comprehensive solutions. In this article, we will explore some key strategies to reduce healthcare disparities.
Culturally Competent Care
Culturally competent care involves tailoring healthcare services to meet the diverse needs and preferences of patients from different cultural backgrounds. Healthcare providers should receive training to understand the cultural beliefs, values, and practices of their patients to deliver care that is sensitive and respectful of their cultural identities. This approach can help improve communication, trust, and patient satisfaction, ultimately leading to better health outcomes.
Health Education and Literacy
Improving health education and health literacy among all communities is essential for empowering individuals to make informed decisions about their health. Healthcare providers and community organizations should work together to develop accessible and culturally appropriate health education materials that address common health issues and promote preventive measures. This can help individuals understand their health conditions, follow treatment plans, and adopt healthier lifestyles.
Access to Affordable Healthcare
Ensuring access to affordable healthcare services is crucial in reducing healthcare disparities. Policymakers should focus on expanding healthcare coverage, reducing out-of-pocket costs, and increasing funding for safety-net programs. Implementing measures to improve access to primary care and preventive services can lead to earlier detection and management of health conditions, reducing the burden of chronic diseases.
Engaging with local communities and implementing community-based interventions can have a significant impact on addressing healthcare disparities. Community health centers, outreach programs, and mobile clinics can reach underserved populations and provide essential healthcare services where they are most needed. Collaborating with community leaders and organizations can help identify specific healthcare needs and tailor interventions accordingly.
Telehealth and Technology
Telehealth and technology solutions have the potential to bridge the gap in healthcare access, especially for individuals in remote or underserved areas. Telemedicine allows patients to connect with healthcare providers virtually, overcoming geographical barriers and improving access to specialty care. Utilizing health apps and wearable devices can also empower individuals to monitor their health and manage chronic conditions more effectively.
Diverse Representation in Healthcare
Promoting diversity in the healthcare workforce can contribute to more equitable healthcare. Encouraging individuals from underrepresented backgrounds to pursue careers in healthcare and providing opportunities for training and advancement can lead to better cultural understanding and patient-provider relationships.
Addressing Social Determinants of Health
Social determinants of health, such as housing, education, employment, and access to nutritious food, significantly influence health outcomes. Addressing these determinants requires a multi-sectoral approach involving collaboration between healthcare, education, housing, and other relevant sectors. Policy changes and targeted interventions can help reduce the impact of social determinants on health disparities.
Data Collection and Analysis
Comprehensive data collection and analysis are essential for understanding the extent of healthcare disparities and identifying the communities most affected. By collecting data on race, ethnicity, gender, income, and other relevant factors, healthcare systems can better target resources and interventions to address disparities effectively.
Healthcare disparities remain a critical challenge in achieving health equity for all individuals. Implementing solutions such as culturally competent care, health education, affordable healthcare access, community-based interventions, telehealth, diverse representation in healthcare, addressing social determinants of health, and data-driven strategies can significantly reduce healthcare disparities. By working together with policymakers, healthcare providers, community organizations, and individuals, we can strive to create a more equitable healthcare system that ensures equal access to quality care for everyone, regardless of their background or circumstances.
Which ethnic group represents the largest minority in the United States?
By 2021, the largest ethnic minority group in the United States is Hispanic or Latino. Hispanics or Latinos are individuals with roots from Spanish-speaking countries in Latin America and Spain. They comprise a significant portion of the U.S. population and contribute to the country’s rich cultural diversity. Please note that demographic data may change over time, so it’s always best to refer to the latest census or reliable sources for the most up-to-date information.
Causes of Health Disparities
Health disparities, which refer to the differences in health outcomes and access to healthcare services among different population groups, have complex and multifaceted causes. These disparities are influenced by various factors, both social and individual, that interact and contribute to unequal health outcomes. Here are some of the key causes of health disparities:
Socioeconomic Status: Economic factors, such as income level, employment status, and educational attainment, play a significant role in health disparities. Individuals with lower socioeconomic status may face challenges in accessing quality healthcare, nutritious food, safe housing, and other resources that impact their overall health.
Race and Ethnicity: Racial and ethnic minorities often experience higher rates of certain health conditions and have less access to healthcare services compared to the majority population. Discrimination, historical injustices, and biases within the healthcare system can contribute to these disparities.
Geographic Location: Where individuals live can impact their access to healthcare resources. Rural areas may have limited healthcare facilities and specialized care, making it difficult for residents to receive timely medical attention.
Access to Healthcare: Unequal access to healthcare services, including health insurance coverage and transportation to medical facilities, can create barriers to receiving proper medical care and preventive services.
Health Behaviors: Differences in health behaviors, such as smoking, diet, exercise, and adherence to medical recommendations, can lead to varying health outcomes among different groups.
Health Education and Literacy: Limited health literacy can hinder individuals from understanding and effectively managing their health conditions, leading to disparities in health outcomes.
Cultural and Language Barriers: Language and cultural differences can affect communication between patients and healthcare providers, leading to misunderstandings and inadequate care.
Discrimination and Bias: Discrimination and bias within the healthcare system can result in differential treatment for certain individuals or groups, contributing to health disparities.
Systemic Inequities: Historical and contemporary inequities in healthcare policies and practices can perpetuate disparities in access to healthcare and health outcomes.
Social Determinants of Health: Social factors, such as housing, education, employment, and access to nutritious food, significantly influence health outcomes and contribute to health disparities.