Jung believed that one of the main purposes of analysis was to assist clients in their
1.1. The Use of the Couch in Psychoanalysis
As you may have learned by now, in classical or “orthodox” psychoanalysis, Freud would invite his clients (called “analysands”) to lie down on a couch while they were talking freely about anything that came to mind, as they self-reflected (the process of free association). All along, Freud would be seated on a chair behind the client, out of the client’s sight, and only interject verbally from time to time, in order to encourage further client self-exploration.
Nowadays, many psychoanalytically oriented counsellors prefer to dialogue with their clients face-to-face. What do you think is gained and what is lost in the face-to-face format? Do you think that the 3 basic tools of psychoanalysis (i.e., analysand’s self-reflection and insight, analysand’s transference, and therapist’s countertransference) can be used more or less effectively in the couch format compared to the face-to-face setting?
1.2. Jung’s Concept of Individuation
Jung believed that one of the main purposes of analysis was to assist clients in their process of individuation. As a counsellor operating from a Jungian perspective, how would you practically work with the client towards that goal?
Expert Answer and Explanation
1.1. The Use of the Couch in Psychoanalysis
One of the gains of face-to-face counseling format is that the counselor can understand the clients’ feelings by watching their body language. Redekop et al. (2017) say that human communication comprises only 7% words and 93% paralinguistic cues and body language. The author notes that body language speaks a lot compared to words. Therefore, a face-to-face format can help a therapist understand the emotions and feelings of the client just by looking at them.
The face-to-face format helps a counselor build a stronger relationship with the clients. Face-to-face communication during counseling can be used for persuasion and engagement. A positive relationship between a therapist and a client can help in outcome achievements. Though face-to-face is one of the best therapy techniques, some clients do not like to have eye contact when sharing their feelings. Hence, in this case, the clients will not be open and say what they feel has it would be in a couching technique (Safran et al., 2019).
In face-to-face format, the therapist and the client may be required to be extremely polite, nod, smile in approval and understanding, and therefore, this can prevent the client from being transparent, self-reflective, and insightful. Couch formal can help the therapist listen and think deeper at the client’s expressions and provide proper countertransference. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of the couch format?
Redekop, F., Luke, C., & Malone, F. (2017). From the couch to the chair: Applying psychoanalytic theory and practice in counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 95, 100-109. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.libraryservices.yorkvilleu.ca/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=url,cookie,ip,uid&db=a9h&AN=120533859
Safran, J. D., Kriss, A. & Foley, V. K. (2019). Psychoanalytic therapies. In D. Wedding & R. J. Corsini (Eds.), Current psychotherapies (11th ed.) pp. 21-58. Boston, MA: Cengage.
1.2. Jung’s Concept of Individuation
Individuation can be defined as the process where an individual achieves a sense of individuality separate from others’ identities and start to exist in the human world consciously (Galipeau, 2013). In other words, it a therapeutic practice where the therapist helps the clients achieve their true-self. A therapist can practically work with clients to achieve individuality by guiding them on how to go about the issue.
The therapist can also help the client by encouraging and supporting them. Encouraging clients to identify their true selves can motivate them to continue the search for their unique individuality. One of the ways to encourage the clients to identify their true selves is by allowing them to speak their minds freely without interference (Dehing, 1992).
You can do this by allowing the clients to sleep on the couch and say their mind without interference. A therapist can also help clients identify their individuality by asking them to listen to their inner voice or dialogues. The clients’ inner dialogues can change extemporaneously as they embody for Self. As a result, they can start knowing themselves and stop berating themselves about how they feel. The clients may feel lighter, free, and open after allowing themselves to listen to their inner voices.
Dehing, J. (1992). The therapist’s interventions in Jungian analysis. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 37, 29-47. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.libraryservices.yorkvilleu.ca/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=url,cookie,ip,uid&db=a9h&AN=12234171
Galipeau, S. (2013). The Red Book and Jung’s typology. Psychological Perspectives, 56, 34-49.
Jungian therapy techniques
Jungian therapy is a type of psychotherapy that is based on the ideas and teachings of Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. The goal of Jungian therapy is to help individuals explore their unconscious mind and to integrate their conscious and unconscious aspects, leading to a more holistic and authentic sense of self.
Here are some common techniques used in Jungian therapy:
- Active Imagination: This technique involves accessing and exploring the unconscious through imaginative visualization, dream analysis, and other forms of creative expression.
- Dream Analysis: Dreams are seen as an important source of information about the unconscious mind, and Jungian therapists often use dream analysis to help clients gain insight into their psychological and emotional state.
- Archetypal Analysis: Jung believed that humans are born with certain innate universal patterns of thought and behavior, which he called archetypes. In Jungian therapy, these archetypes are explored and integrated into the client’s conscious awareness.
- Shadow Work: The “shadow” refers to the parts of ourselves that we deny or repress because they are uncomfortable or unacceptable. Jungian therapy encourages individuals to confront and integrate their shadow self.
- Active Listening: Jungian therapists aim to create a safe and non-judgmental environment for clients to express their thoughts and feelings. This involves active listening, empathy, and validation.
- Symbolism: Jungian therapy emphasizes the importance of symbols in understanding the unconscious mind. Symbols are seen as powerful tools for self-discovery and personal transformation.
- Transference: Transference is a phenomenon where clients project their feelings and attitudes onto the therapist. Jungian therapists use transference to gain insight into the client’s unconscious mind and to help the client work through unresolved issues.
Jungian therapy example
Let’s say a person named Sarah comes to see a Jungian therapist because she is feeling stuck in her life and is struggling with feelings of anxiety and depression. Through dream analysis and active imagination exercises, the therapist helps Sarah explore her unconscious mind and uncover some underlying themes that are contributing to her feelings of stagnation.
During therapy sessions, Sarah discovers that she has been repressing her creative side, which has led to a sense of unfulfillment in her life. She also realizes that she has been holding onto certain beliefs and attitudes that are no longer serving her, such as the idea that she needs to be perfect in order to be successful.
Through archetypal analysis and shadow work, the therapist helps Sarah understand how these unconscious patterns have been shaping her thoughts and behavior. The therapist also encourages Sarah to express herself creatively and to embrace her imperfections.
Over time, Sarah begins to feel more empowered and self-aware. She is able to let go of her self-imposed limitations and start pursuing her passions. She also develops a deeper understanding of herself and her unconscious patterns, which allows her to navigate life’s challenges with more ease and confidence.