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[ANSWERED 2022] Search the GCU Library and find one new health care article that uses quantitative research. Do not use an article from a previous assignment, or that appears in the Topic Materials or textbook.

Search the GCU Library and find one new health care article that uses quantitative research. Do not use an article from a previous assignment, or that appears in the Topic Materials or textbook.

Complete an article analysis and ethics evaluation of the research using the “Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics” template. See Chapter 5 of your textbook as needed, for assistance.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

Expert Answer and Explanation

Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

Article Citation and Permalink

(APA format)

Article 1

Espeland, M. A., Lipska, K., Miller, M. E., Rushing, J., Cohen, R. A., Verghese, J., … & Pahor, M. (2017). Effects of physical activity intervention on physical and cognitive function in sedentary adults with and without diabetes. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 72(6), 861-866. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glw179

Point

Description

Broad Topic Area/Title Effects of physical activity intervention on physical and cognitive function in sedentary adults with and without diabetes
Problem Statement

(What is the problem research is addressing?)

More than a quarter of the US aging population suffer from diabetes mellitus. This condition has increased their chances of developing geriatric syndromes. Medication alone have not entirely reduced the effects of the condition. That said, this study has addressed physical activity and its effects on diabetic patients.
Purpose Statement

(What is the purpose of the study?)

The purpose of this study was to explore the “effects of physical activity intervention on physical and cognitive function in sedentary adults with and without diabetes.”

 

Research Questions

(What questions does the research seek to answer?)

The researchers used one primary research question to guide the study. The research question was “what are the effects of physical activity intervention on physical and cognitive function in sedentary adults with and without diabetes?”
Define Hypothesis

(Or state the correct hypothesis based upon variables used)

Apart from the research question, a hypothesis was created to guide the study. The hypothesis for this study was that “the intervention may have different effects on physical and cognitive function, depending on individuals’ diabetes status.”
Identify Dependent and Independent Variables and Type of Data for the Variables Two main variables were included in the study. The first variable is independent variable. This variable was represented by physical activity intervention. This variable belongs to quantitative data type. The second variable is dependent variable. It is represented by sedentary adults with and without diabetes. Its data type is categorical.
Population of Interest for Study Researchers must identify the people or other populations targeted by their study. In this research, the target or population of interest were 65 years and above sedentary adults with and without diabetes.
Sample The respondents in the research were 1,476 70–89 years old sedentary individuals who could walk for about 400 meters in 15 minutes regardless of their extreme inability to conduct daily function.
Sampling Method Researchers must indicate how they conducted their sampling method to validate if the study was fair or not. In this research, random sampling approach was used to sample and select the participants for the study.
Identify Data Collection

Identify how data were collected

Identifying a data collection instrument is vital because it can help in analyzing the research to determine its reliability and validity. Researchers in this study collected data using interviews as their main data collection instrument.
Summarize Data Collection Approach The researchers collected data by administering three computer-based cognitive tests at either 18 or 30 months and at baseline, depending on when the respondents were included in the study. The interviewer-administered tests included the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Digit Symbol Coding test (DSC), the Modified MiniMental State Exam (3MSE), and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-D).
Discuss Data Analysis

Include what types of statistical tests were used for the variables.

Descriptive analysis was used as the method to analyze data in the study. The authors analyzed data by comparing measures of cognitive and physical functions and baseline risk factors with diabetes groups and intervention based on the analyses of logistic regression and variance.
Summarize Results of Study 90.3% of the participants successfully completed the study making it results reliable. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) reduced the participants’ risk of developing major mobility conditions by increasing their physical activities. Physical activity alone was found to be beneficial because it increased the participants’ mobility speed but did not have effects on their cognitive health. However, LIFE has both cognitive and physical impacts.
Summary of Assumptions and Limitations

Identify the assumptions and limitations from the article.

Report other potential assumptions and limitations of your review not listed by the author.

The first limitation of the study is that it cannot be used to represent general population because few participants volunteered to participate. The second limitation is that the timeframe assigned the project was limited and could not be used to provide maximum results. The last limitation is that diabetes was underdiagnosed in the study.

Ethical Considerations

The first ethical consideration that may have occurred when sampling was informed consent. Informed consent is an ethical consideration that ensures that the researchers have not forced the participants to participate (Moore, Munguia Gomez & Levine, 2019). In other words, the element ensures that participants have voluntarily participated in the study. In the informed consent form, the researchers are ethically required to tell the respondents the purpose of the study, its importance, and how it will be used to improve healthcare. Another ethical consideration that might have occurred in the study was approved. Moore et al. (2019) mention that researchers should seek approval from relevant bodies before they initiate the project. The researchers mentioned that the intervention was approved by all sites’ institutional review boards. Approval should be sought to ensure that the research will not harm the participants in any way.

In terms of publishing results, privacy and confidentiality consideration occurred. The participants were provided with confidentiality forms to sign. In the form, the researchers were required to mention the information that will see the light and the ones that will be viewed by only authorized personnel. The privacy consideration was designed to stop the researchers from forcing the participants from sharing their private data. The respondents are liberty to give information they feel comfortable sharing. When analyzing data, the researchers were required to be fair and accurate. In other words, data analysis was to be accurate, valid, and fair (Moore et al., 2019). The last ethical consideration was the declaration of interest. The authors did not show anywhere in the paper that there was no conflict of interest.

References

Espeland, M. A., Lipska, K., Miller, M. E., Rushing, J., Cohen, R. A., Verghese, J., … & Pahor, M. (2017). Effects of physical activity intervention on physical and cognitive function in sedentary adults with and without diabetes. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 72(6), 861-866. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glw179

Moore, A. K., Munguia Gomez, D. M., & Levine, E. E. (2019). Everyday dilemmas: New directions on the judgment and resolution of benevolence–integrity dilemmas. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 13(7), e12472. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12472

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