[2023] A 6 year old female child that came to the clinic with accompanied by her mother complaining of cough since 8 weeks ago

A 6 year old female child that came to the clinic with accompanied by her mother

A 6 year old female child that came to the clinic with accompanied by her mother complaining of cough since 8 weeks ago. The cough is triggered when she laugh or cry

Asthma case study instructions ( Essay)

A 6 year old female child that came to the clinic with accompanied by her mother complaining of cough since 8 weeks ago. The cough is triggered when she laugh or cry. Her cough get worse  when she is exposes to cold air, exercise, and at night. Patient past medical history of mild eczema and chronic nasal congestion. No shortness of breath, wheezing or fever reported. She is currently talking no medications. No known allergies reported. On her examination she is not in acute distress.

Positive findings during examination: nasal turbinates little pale and edematous. During lungs auscultation she had end- expiratory wheezing, but no use of accessory muscle of respiration. The child was born in India moved to United Stated when she was 1 year old. Her family recently moved to a new area, since that, she is complaining of worsening nasal congestion. The house has some carpets on the floor. She also has a dog in her house. Patient has a history of mother and cousins diagnosed with asthma. The primary diagnosis is asthma based on her past history, clinical presentation and family history.


Should be a paragraph that provides a brief overview of the case and main diagnosis:


Differential Diagnoses

Provide EACH differential diagnosis with the rationale and supporting evidence with the REFERENCE for each one. Also explain why differentials Viral pneumonia and sinusitis) were not the main diagnosis.

  • Asthma:
  • Viral pneumonia:
  • Sinusitis:


Identify the lab, radiology, or other tests needed for Asthma with supporting evidence.


Include the initial treatment plan for Asthma. It should include medication names, dosages, and frequencies


Patient/family education in patient with asthma

Follow-Up for athma

Appropriate follow up plan.

Please include when will patient follow up: 2 weeks, 1month, 3 months.

What are some follow up labs or test. Referrals

Why are they following up? What outcome do you wish to assess?



APA format

Intext citation

References at least 4 high-level scholarly reference per post within the last 5 years in APA format.

EACH differential diagnostic gets 1 reference

Plagiarism free.

Turnitin receipt.

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How to Help a Child with Difficulty Breathing

When a child experiences difficulty breathing, it can be a distressing situation for both the child and their caregivers. The ability to breathe freely is crucial for proper growth, development, and overall well-being. Understanding the importance of helping a child with difficulty breathing is essential to provide immediate assistance, seek appropriate medical attention, and establish long-term strategies for managing respiratory issues effectively.

Identifying the Cause

Recognizing the signs of difficulty breathing in children is the first step towards providing necessary aid. Symptoms such as rapid or shallow breathing, wheezing, coughing, bluish discoloration of the lips or face, and retractions (visible sinking of the skin between the ribs or at the base of the neck) indicate respiratory distress. Common causes of difficulty breathing in children include asthma, allergies, respiratory infections, foreign body aspiration, and chronic conditions like cystic fibrosis.

Immediate Steps to Assist a Child with Difficulty Breathing

In a situation where a child is struggling to breathe, it is crucial to remain calm and take immediate action. Ensuring the child’s safety by removing any potential hazards is paramount. If there is an airway obstruction, such as food or a small object, it should be cleared promptly and safely. In cases where the child is not breathing adequately, rescue breathing techniques, such as mouth-to-mouth resuscitation or chest compressions, may be necessary. Activating emergency medical services should be a priority when the child’s condition does not improve or if there is a severe respiratory emergency.

Long-term Strategies to Support a Child with Respiratory Issues

Seeking medical diagnosis and treatment is vital for managing chronic respiratory conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional will help determine the underlying cause of the child’s difficulty breathing and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Creating a safe and clean environment by reducing exposure to allergens, dust, and pollutants can significantly improve the child’s respiratory health. Implementing healthy lifestyle habits, such as maintaining a balanced diet, regular exercise, and adequate hydration, also contribute to overall well-being. In some cases, respiratory devices or medications prescribed by a healthcare professional may be necessary to alleviate symptoms and support optimal lung function.

Emotional Support for the Child and Family

Caring for a child with difficulty breathing can be emotionally challenging for both the child and their family. Communicating with empathy and reassurance is essential to provide emotional support. Encouraging open dialogue and allowing the child to express their emotions freely helps them cope with their condition. Seeking support from healthcare professionals or joining support groups for families facing similar challenges can provide additional guidance, resources, and a sense of community.

Preventive Measures to Reduce the Risk of Difficulty Breathing

Preventing respiratory issues in children involves proactive measures. Maintaining a clean and allergen-free environment by regularly cleaning surfaces, using air purifiers, and minimizing exposure to smoke or strong odors can reduce respiratory triggers. Promoting healthy habits, such as proper hand hygiene and encouraging regular exercise, supports a strong immune system. Ensuring timely vaccination and immunization helps protect children from respiratory infections. Monitoring and managing any underlying health conditions, such as allergies or asthma, can also minimize the risk of difficulty breathing.


Helping a child with difficulty breathing requires a multi-faceted approach that encompasses immediate assistance, long-term strategies, emotional support, and preventive measures. By understanding the signs, taking immediate action, seeking medical guidance, and providing a supportive environment, caregivers can effectively assist children with respiratory issues and improve their overall quality of life.


  1. What are the common causes of difficulty breathing in children? Difficulty breathing in children can be caused by various factors, including asthma, allergies, respiratory infections, foreign body aspiration, and chronic conditions like cystic fibrosis.
  2. When should I seek emergency medical assistance for a child with difficulty breathing? Emergency medical assistance should be sought immediately if the child’s breathing difficulties worsen, they have bluish discoloration of the lips or face, or if they show signs of severe respiratory distress.
  3. How can I create a safe and clean environment for a child with respiratory issues? To create a safe and clean environment, it’s important to minimize exposure to allergens, pollutants, and irritants by regularly cleaning surfaces, using air purifiers, and avoiding smoke or strong odors.
  4. Are there any natural remedies or alternative therapies that can help with difficulty breathing in children? While natural remedies and alternative therapies may provide some relief, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using them, as they may not be suitable for every child or condition.
  5. Can difficulty breathing in children be a sign of a more serious underlying health condition? Difficulty breathing in children can be a symptom of various underlying health conditions. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for a proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

A 6 year old female child that came to the clinic with accompanied by her mother complaining of cough since 8 weeks ago. The cough is triggered when she laugh or cry

What is the most common cause of cough in children?

The most common cause of cough in children is often respiratory infections, particularly viral infections. These infections can include:

  1. Common Cold: Viruses such as rhinoviruses and coronaviruses can cause cold symptoms, including coughing.
  2. Influenza (Flu): The influenza virus commonly leads to cough as part of its respiratory symptoms.
  3. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): RSV is a common cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children and can result in coughing.
  4. Croup: This viral infection, often caused by the parainfluenza virus, can lead to a distinctive barking cough.
  5. Pertussis (Whooping Cough): Although less common due to vaccinations, pertussis can cause severe coughing fits in children.
  6. Bronchiolitis: Often caused by viruses such as RSV, bronchiolitis can lead to cough and difficulty breathing, especially in infants.

How to Stop a Constant Cough in Child at Night

Here are some suggestions:

  1. Keep the Child Hydrated:
    • Offer plenty of fluids throughout the day. This helps keep the throat moist and can soothe irritation.
  2. Use a Humidifier:
    • Adding a cool-mist humidifier to the child’s room can help keep the air moist, which might alleviate coughing, especially if the cough is due to dry air.
  3. Elevate the Head of the Bed:
    • Prop up the head of the child’s bed slightly to prevent postnasal drip and reduce coughing during the night.
  4. Avoid Irritants:
    • Keep the child away from smoke and strong odors, as these can worsen coughing. Avoid using strong cleaning products in their room.
  5. Honey for Children Over One Year Old:
    • For children over the age of one, a small amount of honey before bedtime can help soothe the throat and reduce coughing. Note that honey should not be given to children under one year old due to the risk of botulism.
  6. Over-the-Counter Medications:
    • Consult with a pediatrician before giving any over-the-counter cough medications, as they may not be suitable for all age groups, and some may have potential side effects.
  7. Seek Professional Advice:
    • If the cough persists or is associated with other concerning symptoms, consult a healthcare professional for a proper diagnosis and guidance on appropriate treatment.

Causes of Asthma in Children

Asthma in children is a chronic respiratory condition characterized by inflammation of the airways, leading to symptoms like wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. While the exact cause of asthma is not fully understood, a combination of genetic and environmental factors is believed to contribute to its development. Here are some common causes and risk factors associated with asthma in children:

  1. Genetic Predisposition:
    • Children with a family history of asthma or other allergic conditions (known as atopic diseases) are at a higher risk of developing asthma. Genetic factors play a role in determining an individual’s susceptibility to asthma.
  2. Allergies:
    • Exposure to allergens can trigger asthma symptoms. Common allergens include pollen, mold spores, pet dander, dust mites, and cockroach droppings. Children with allergies are more prone to asthma.
  3. Respiratory Infections:
    • Viral respiratory infections, especially during early childhood, can increase the risk of developing asthma. Infections such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus have been linked to asthma development.
  4. Exposure to Tobacco Smoke:
    • Children exposed to secondhand smoke, both during pregnancy and after birth, are at an increased risk of developing asthma. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is also a risk factor.
  5. Environmental Factors:
    • Exposure to air pollution, industrial pollutants, and other environmental factors can contribute to the development or exacerbation of asthma symptoms.
  6. Premature Birth and Low Birth Weight:
    • Children born prematurely or with a low birth weight may have underdeveloped lungs, increasing their susceptibility to respiratory conditions, including asthma.
  7. Childhood Obesity:
    • Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for asthma in children. The mechanisms linking obesity to asthma are complex and involve both inflammatory and mechanical factors.
  8. Exposure to Certain Chemicals:
    • Exposure to certain chemicals and irritants in the environment, such as paint fumes and cleaning agents, may contribute to the development of asthma or trigger asthma symptoms in susceptible individuals.
  9. Physical Activity:
    • While exercise is generally beneficial, some children may experience exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, commonly referred to as exercise-induced asthma. This can be a component of overall asthma symptoms.
  10. Stress and Emotional Factors:
  • Emotional stress and exposure to stressful situations may contribute to asthma symptoms or exacerbate existing asthma in some children.

What Is the Best Treatment for Asthma in Children?

The treatment for asthma in children is typically aimed at controlling symptoms, preventing exacerbations, and improving overall lung function. It involves a combination of medications, lifestyle management, and education. It’s important for parents or caregivers to work closely with healthcare professionals to develop an individualized treatment plan for each child. Here are common components of asthma treatment in children:

  1. Controller Medications:
    • Inhaled Corticosteroids (ICS): These medications, such as fluticasone and budesonide, are considered the most effective long-term control medications for asthma. They reduce inflammation in the airways, preventing asthma symptoms. They need to be taken consistently, even when the child feels well.
    • Leukotriene Modifiers: Medications like montelukast can help control asthma symptoms by blocking the action of leukotrienes, inflammatory compounds that contribute to asthma.
  2. Reliever or Rescue Medications:
    • Short-Acting Beta-Agonists (SABAs): Albuterol is a common SABA that provides quick relief from acute asthma symptoms by relaxing the muscles around the airways. It is used as a rescue inhaler during acute episodes.
  3. Combination Inhalers:
    • Some children with moderate to severe asthma may be prescribed combination inhalers containing both a corticosteroid and a long-acting beta-agonist (LABA).
  4. Oral Corticosteroids:
    • In cases of severe exacerbations, oral corticosteroids like prednisone may be prescribed for a short duration to reduce inflammation.
  5. Allergy Management:
    • Identifying and managing allergic triggers can play a crucial role in asthma management. This may include minimizing exposure to allergens, using air purifiers, and addressing environmental factors that may worsen asthma symptoms.
  6. Education and Asthma Action Plan:
    • Ensuring that parents, caregivers, and the child have a good understanding of asthma is essential. An asthma action plan, developed with the healthcare provider, helps outline steps to take in different situations, such as during symptom flare-ups.
  7. Regular Monitoring:
    • Regular monitoring of asthma symptoms and lung function, using tools like peak flow meters or spirometry, helps assess control and adjust treatment plans accordingly.
  8. Lifestyle Modifications:
    • Encouraging a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise and a balanced diet, can contribute to overall well-being and help manage asthma symptoms.
  9. Avoiding Tobacco Smoke:
    • Reducing or eliminating exposure to tobacco smoke is crucial, as smoke can exacerbate asthma symptoms.
  10. Regular Follow-ups:
    • Children with asthma require regular follow-up appointments with healthcare providers to assess their asthma control, adjust medications if necessary, and address any concerns or changes in symptoms.

How to Test for Asthma in a Child

Diagnosing asthma in a child typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and specific tests to assess lung function and airway responsiveness. Here are common methods used to test for asthma in children:

  1. Medical History:
    • The healthcare provider will ask about the child’s symptoms, including the frequency and severity of coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Information about any triggers or patterns of symptoms is also important.
  2. Physical Examination:
    • The healthcare provider will conduct a thorough physical examination, listening to the child’s lungs with a stethoscope to check for wheezing or other abnormal sounds. They will also assess overall respiratory health.
  3. Spirometry:
    • Spirometry is a lung function test that measures how much air a person can breathe in and out and how quickly they can do it. While it may be challenging for very young children, it is often used in older children. The child will be asked to take a deep breath and then blow forcefully into a tube connected to a spirometer.
  4. Peak Flow Measurement:
    • Peak flow meters are handheld devices that measure how fast a person can breathe out. Regular peak flow measurements can help monitor lung function and identify changes. This test is more suitable for older children who can follow instructions.
  5. Bronchoprovocation Tests:
    • These tests involve exposing the child to a substance that can trigger asthma symptoms, such as methacholine or exercise. The child’s lung function is then measured to assess the airway response.
  6. Exhaled Nitric Oxide Measurement:
    • Elevated levels of nitric oxide in the breath can be a marker of airway inflammation, which is common in asthma. This test is more commonly used in older children and adolescents.
  7. Chest X-ray or CT Scan:
    • In some cases, imaging tests like chest X-rays or CT scans may be performed to rule out other respiratory conditions that can mimic asthma symptoms.
  8. Allergy Testing:
    • Allergy tests, such as skin prick tests or blood tests, may be conducted to identify specific allergens that could be triggering asthma symptoms.



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