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[SOLVED 2023] Define what is meant by information. Define what is meant by data. Create two matrices

Last Updated on 03/14/2023 by Admin

Define what is meant by information. Define what is meant by data. Create two matrices

define what is meant by information. define what is meant by data. create two matrices

In this unit, you have learned about management information systems (MIS) and the importance of it. For this assignment, compose a paper that discusses the key differences between data, information, information technology (IT), and information systems (IS). Your paper should address the components listed below.

  • Define what is meant by information.
  • Define what is meant by data.
  • Create two matrices (one for data and one for information) that illustrate the key differences between information and data, place the matrices into your paper, and briefly discuss the differences in one or two paragraphs. Each matrix should contain characteristics and/or facts about the subjects (data and information) that show how they are different.
  • Define IT.
  • Define IS.
  • Using the five-component model as an example, discuss some differences between IT and IS.

Your paper must be a minimum of two pages in length (not counting the title and reference pages), and you must use at least two resources as references. Any information from these resources must be cited and referenced in APA format.

Expert Answer and Explanation

Unit 1 Management

MIS collects data from various systems online, initiates information analysis and thus announces data, in order to help in a policy, build up (Laudon & Laudon, 2012). There are three components of MIS: – Management, Information, and System. These three components aid in building decisions for the managing of the organization. In regard to the achievements, MIS is a significant aid for improved decision and strategy making. Goals can be quickly achieved by a complete acknowledgment of these elements (Laudon & Laudon, 2012).

Definition of Data and Information

       DATA is underdone, a disorderly attribute that requires to be organized. When data is presented in a provided subject to summon its utilization, it is called INFORMATION.

Key-Differences Between Data and Information

define what is meant by information. define what is meant by data. create two matrices

Data are simplified wordings and numerals, whereas information is interpreted data. Similarly, data is preserved in a computer system or just crammed up by an individual while information is more authentic ascompared to data, in addition to this, an exact examination is undergone for the conversion of data into information by the monitor.

Moreover, data are facts that are gathered casually and context that is analyzed, to sum up, the given assets and information is something that ends up providing a significance to the data in a modified manner.

Data may not always be the facet that satisfies the need of the investigator, but information is always specific to the required investigation because every meaningless figure is abolished, during the processing of data. Furthermore, the data collected has a questionable application to the researcher as during its compilation, it does not imply its relevance.

Conversely, information is worthy to him to bring out its particular use. Therefore, data is never contingent on information, in contrast with, information that totally counts on the data provided.

Definition of IT and IS

IT -Information Technology is the use of a computing system to preserve, redeem, transfer, and handle data or information (Davies, 2008).IS -Information Systems is a study of systems with a particular backing to information and the free networks of hardware and software that individuals employ to gather, filter, analyze, develop and also dispense data.

Difference Between It and Is

       Based on Five Component Model: -Hardware, software, data, procedures, and people are the five components of an information system; on the analysis of which it is proposed that how these components are brought into service to develop a completely workable system.

IT engages with the technological aspects that aids in the information systems themselves. On the other hand, IS is the arch between the user and the technology. IT is a subdivision of IS.IS is described as an overarching umbrella while IT groups under the IS umbrella.IS concentrates on the given information, whereas IT aids in the collection and the analysis of information.

Therefore, the prime asset is the information here, but IT is dedicated more towards computer software and hardware. IS management is related to the optimization of systems in contrast with IT management that deals with the maintenance of hardware. Apart from this, IS is concerned with the development of IS policy that goes along with vast business aims and claims its specified functions, but IT focuses on framing the necessity to be determined.


Subsequently, for a swift approach towards the attainment of a refined and precise form of data and else to aid the researchers on a particular project of interest, MIS becomes the ultimate idea of productivity. MIS is of great help for the organization that it leaves a great influence on the developer’s performance, roles, and ultimately efficiency MIS provides help in subsequent phases to the managers and thus, in turn, provides great assistance, to come up with a perfectly planned policy.

Alternative Answer

Information Systems Management


Information can be said to be a set of facts that are either earned or provided concerning someone or something. Alternatively, it can also represent processed that that is represented or conveyed by a specific sequence or arrangement (McKinney Jr, & Yoos, 2019).

In retrospect, it can be regarded as the process of resolving uncertainty through the answering of the question, “what is an entity.” The information thus gives meaning to the nature and essence of its characteristics. Depending on the context, information can partake in different meanings related to the notions of communication, education, control, data, understanding, stimuli, perception, and entropy.


Data, also perceived a raw material, is a group of values that contain wither qualitative or quantitative variables concerning a single or multiple objects or individuals. In as much as the terms data and information and more often used interchangeably, the terms possess different meanings in technology, with the most common being data acting the initial raw content before being processed into information (Computer Hope, 2019).

Data can be presented in an unprocessed form such as words, numbers, and symbols that are in relation to events, transactions, and factual interpolations. In its simplest, form data is not very useful and needs to be processed through relations sand grouping in order to be useful and informative.

Differences Between Data and Information

define what is meant by information. define what is meant by data. create two matrices

There are four main differences between data and information, as represented in the matrices above. To begin with, while data is comprised of words, digits, and symbols, information is made up of processed data that easily understandable (Computer Hope, 2019). Data is disorderly and not specific to a single entity, information, on the other hand, is well organized and follows a specific order.

Data may or may not be useful, and the probability of usefulness cannot be determined, while information, on the other hand, always contains useful details pertaining to specific concepts (Computer Hope, 2019). The acquisition of data can be from documents or remarks while information is based on the outcome of analysis and examination.

Information Technology

The term information technology refers to the use of computers, networking devices, or other physical devices, processes, and infrastructure to create, store, process, or retrieve different forms of electronic data (Heeks, 2017). Basically, IT contains the hardware, software, network infrastructure, and databases required to implement technological integrations.

Information Systems

Information systems is a broad term for a formal organizational and sociotechnical system designed to collect, store, process, and distribute information (Heeks, 2017). The information system comprises people, systems, and processes that are designed for the manipulation and distribution of the processed data.

Difference Between Information System and Information Technology

The main difference between IS and IT is that IS incorporates both the human resource, technology, and the processes used in dealing with information. Alternatively, information technology is purely technical without human entity in the design and implementation of data within the information system (Ashford, 2018).

The information system is not entirely dependent on technology and computations, while the information system is based on purely technological aspects to provide its functionality. Be that as it may, the two aspects are bridges with the processing of data to form information while they are different in the sense that IT can be a subset of information systems (Ashford, 2018). As such, information systems can then be applied to bridge the gap between computer processing and human involvement to manipulate the data distributed in the various forms depending on the nature of the output.


Ashford. (2018). Information Technology vs. Information Systems: Which Degree is Right for Me?. Ashford University. (2018). Retrieved 2 June 2020, from

Computer Hope. (2019). What is the difference between data and information?. Retrieved 2 June 2020, from

Heeks, R. (2017). Information technology, information systems and public sector accountability. In Information Technology in Context: Studies from the Perspective of Developing Countries (pp. 201-219). Routledge.

McKinney Jr, E. H., & Yoos, C. J. (2019). Information as a difference: toward a subjective theory of information. European Journal of Information Systems28(4), 355-369.

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Difference between data and information

Data refers to raw and unprocessed facts and figures. It is a collection of numbers, text, images, and other forms of digital or physical media that is used as the basis for information processing. Information, on the other hand, is data that has been processed and transformed into a meaningful context. It is data that has been organized, structured, or presented in a way that makes it useful and relevant to the recipient. Information helps us understand the world around us, make decisions, and solve problems. In short, data is the raw material that is used to create information. Information is data that has been transformed into a form that is useful and meaningful to us.

What is information

Information is a processed, organized, and structured collection of data that is intended to convey meaning and understanding. It is a combination of facts, data, and knowledge that is used to support decision-making, solve problems, and provide insights. Information can come in various forms such as text, images, audio, or video and can be processed and stored in a variety of ways including books, databases, and digital media. The goal of information is to provide context, clarity, and a deeper understanding of a subject or issue. The value of information is in its ability to help individuals, organizations, and society make informed decisions, gain new insights, and take action based on that knowledge. Effective information is clear, accurate, and relevant to the needs of the audience.

Information system

An information system is a combination of hardware, software, data, people, and processes that work together to collect, process, store, and disseminate information. It is used to support the operations, management, and decision-making functions of an organization. There are several types of information systems, including:
  1. Transaction Processing Systems (TPS): These systems are used to process and manage day-to-day business transactions, such as sales and purchase orders.
  2. Management Information Systems (MIS): These systems provide managers with summarized, historical, and real-time information to help them make informed decisions.
  3. Decision Support Systems (DSS): These systems are designed to help managers make decisions by providing them with relevant data and analysis tools.
  4. Executive Information Systems (EIS): These systems provide top-level executives with a high-level view of the organization's performance and strategic information.
  5. Expert Systems: These are systems that mimic the decision-making abilities of a human expert in a specific domain.
  6. Artificial Intelligence Systems: These systems use algorithms and machine learning to analyze data and make predictions or decisions.
The role of information systems is to support the goals and objectives of an organization by providing relevant, timely, and accurate information to support decision-making and problem-solving. Information systems help organizations to achieve efficiency, improve communication and collaboration, and gain a competitive advantage.

Management information system

A Management Information System (MIS) is a type of information system that provides managers with summarized, historical, and real-time information to help them make informed decisions. The primary goal of an MIS is to support the management and decision-making functions of an organization by providing relevant, accurate, and timely information. A MIS typically consists of several components, including:
  1. Data Collection: The system collects data from internal and external sources, such as sales transactions, customer feedback, and market trends.
  2. Data Processing: The data is processed and transformed into useful information through data cleaning, data analysis, and data reporting.
  3. Data Storage: The processed data is stored in a database or data warehouse for later use.
  4. Data Retrieval: Managers can access the stored information through various retrieval systems, such as reports, dashboards, and data mining tools.
  5. Data Distribution: The information is distributed to managers and other stakeholders who need it to make decisions.
A MIS provides managers with the information they need to evaluate performance, identify trends and patterns, and make informed decisions. For example, an MIS can provide sales reports, customer feedback data, and market trends analysis to help managers make decisions about product development, marketing strategies, and resource allocation. Overall, an MIS helps organizations to improve decision-making, increase efficiency, and gain a competitive advantage by providing relevant and accurate information to support the management and decision-making functions.

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