[ANSWERED 2023] Health care planners could be more effective and efficient if they used the concept of the natural history of disease and the levels of prevention to design services that intervene at the weakest

Health care planners could be more effective and efficient if they used the concept of the

Health care planners could be more effective and efficient if they used the concept of the natural history of disease and the levels of prevention to design services that intervene at the weakest

Healthcare Systems

Assignment Description:

Complete ALL of the bullet points below:

  • Health care planners could be more effective and efficient if they used the concept of the natural history of disease and the levels of prevention to design services that intervene at the weakest link in the chain of progression of specific diseases. Instead, most focus on high-technology solutions to preventable problems. Assess the characteristics of the medical care culture that encourage the latter approach.
  • Hospitals and other health care institutions, whether voluntary or for-profit, need to be financially solvent to survive growing market pressures. Describe how this “bottom line” focus has changed the nature of the US health care system.
  • The insurance industry plays a huge role in the American health care system and absorbs a significant portion of the health care dollar. A single payer system, whether it is a private company or the US government, would eliminate the complex insurance paperwork burden and free substantial funds that could be diverted to support care for the under-served. Why do you believe that so much resistance to a concept used in every other developed country has continued in the U.S.?
  • Include the time management Weekly Planner to show when you will make room for your school work.
    Please submit one APA formatted paper between 1000 – 1500 words, not including the title and reference page. The assignment should have a minimum of two scholarly sources, in addition to the textbook.

They want it in APA with the beginning of the paper stating what it is about and conclusion at the end

Required Source: Sultz, H. A., & Young, K. A. (2017). Health care USA: Understanding its organization and delivery (9th ed.). Jones & Bartlett. Read chapters 1 & 2.

Expert Answer and Explanation

US Healthcare System

The US healthcare system has experienced a lot of changes in terms of medical care methods and treatment protocols and financing. In terms of treatment, the US health system has been positively impacted by technologies such as electronic health records among other healthcare technologies (Sultz & Young, 2017).

These technologies have allowed healthcare professionals to provide quality and safe care. In terms of financing, the US health system has experienced huge reimbursement changes. Some of the policies that have changed US health financing include Medicare, Medicaid, and Affordable Care programs (Sultz & Young, 2017).

The purpose of this assignment is to explain characteristics of the medical care culture that have encouraged US care professionals to focus on high-technology solutions to preventable problems, how the “bottom line” focus has changed the nature of the US health care system, and why universal health care is resisted in the US.

Question 1

Certain characteristics are common in a medical culture which encourages healthcare professionals to use high-technology solutions to preventable problems. The characteristics become visible during patient examination and provision of other care services concerning the technologies. It is vital to identify the players in healthcare culture to accurately determine their characteristics and motives.

In the US healthcare culture, two main players are the patients and healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses, and other specialists) (Sultz & Young, 2017). Other players include the hospital system and third-party payers (private and government insurance plans). One of the medical care cultures that encourage the latter approach is instant gratification.

According to Sultz and Young (2017), most healthcare planers focus on high-technology solutions to preventable problems because of the medical culture of instant gratification. Instant gratification means instant cure (Deo et al., 2020).

Most patients in the US need an instant cure for acute illness, chronic disease, and pain which cannot be provided by the former. High-technology solutions can provide instant care while the former cannot. When high technologies are used, the patient is cured almost instantly.

The second characteristic is work satisfaction. Sultz and Young (2017) noted that work satisfaction is highly associated with the use of high technology to provide cures and promote disease prevention. The main objective of healthcare professionals is to provide patient care using standardized interventions.

Healthcare professionals prefer to use high technology to attain healthcare goals because it prevents them from fewer difficulties as compared to the conventional approach which relies on identifying the history of the illness to create a treatment protocol (Harerimana et al., 2019). In other words, healthcare professionals use high technology to help their patients because it achieves their care goals faster than conventional methods and thus improves their satisfaction.

The last characteristic is improved coordination of responsibilities and communication. Healthcare professionals prefer care methods that allow them to effectively coordinate and communicate when providing care to their patients. High-technology methods provide them with the opportunity to coordinate and effectively communicate making it a preferred method of care provision among the players in the US care system.

Sultz and Young (2017) noted that US care providers have recently shown interest in Electrotonic Health Records as a tool to be used in providing care. The authors argued that the tool has helped healthcare providers easily and effectively coordinate and communicate with patients and other stakeholders to provide care. EHR technology provided healthcare professionals with a single platform where they can access patient data and communicate with peers, making the high-technology care provision method the preferred approach.

Health care planners could be more effective and efficient if they used the concept of the natural history of disease and the levels of prevention to design services that intervene at the weakest

Question 2

All healthcare organizations across the US strive to be financially solvent in the process of providing quality and safe care to their patients and this has greatly affected the nation’s healthcare system. One of the ways the “bottom line” focus has changed the healthcare system in the US is increasing the cost of care services.

Dieleman et al. (2020) noted that Americans are paying more for their care today than in the last decade due to healthcare organizations’ focus on the bottom line. Healthcare organizations are forced to increase the cost of care services to be able to pay for their human workforce and procure necessary products needed for care providers such as drugs, beds, ambulances, and many more (Ratna, 2020).

Healthcare insurance companies have also increased the number of premiums people are supposed to pay to receive care. The rise in the cost of care has created a gap between low-income and high-income people. Only high-income individuals can access care based on the impact.

The quality of care has also been impacted by the bottom-line focus. Healthcare organizations have focused more on making a profit than providing quality care because they want to achieve the bottom line and become financially stable. There have been instances where healthcare organizations turn patients away because they do not have insurance or cannot pay for the services they seek (Ratna, 2020).

For instance, some healthcare organizations turn away patients because they cannot pay for the services or do not have insurance plans. Other facilities diagnose patients and then refer them to a smaller health center because they are afraid of not getting paid and that the patients are not good for business (Ratna, 2020).

The bottom-line mentality has also led to health inequality in the US care system in that people without insurance plans or financial muscle cannot get the healthcare services they need.

Customer satisfaction has also been affected. Other healthcare organizations have resorted to employing less qualified healthcare staff to care for patients. The staff does not have the needed experience and skills to provide patient-centered care which makes patients less satisfied with the services they receive.

Question 3

The universal healthcare system (UHS) is a model that is highly discussed in the US. Under the UHS model, the government is the sole payer of all healthcare costs (Sultz & Young, 2017). The coverage means that all people have equal access to healthcare services they want, where and when they need it without economic hardship.

The model removes the need for private insurance firms which often set rigid standards for individuals to access care (Giovanella et al., 2018). Though most of the developed economies have implemented UHS, the US has not yet adopted the system used to unending resistance. Healthcare insurance firms are among the stakeholders resisting the system.

They view the system as a threat to their insurance business because once the government pays for all healthcare needs, people will not have any reason to take private insurance (Zieff et al., 2020). These firms have waged war against any faction supporting UHS by lobbying politicians and other groups to denounce the success of the plan.

The firms and other interested parties are always ready to spend millions of dollars to lobby against any policy suggesting the adoption of UHS in the US. For instance, the battle about the contents of the Affordable Care Act generated about $1.2 billion in 2009 in lobbying alone (Zieff et al., 2020). The insurance industry spent over $100 to ensure that ACA did not affect private insurers.

The system has been facing a lot of resistance because American culture is mostly individualistic. In other words, Americans, especially conservatives believe strongly in classical liberalism. According to conservatives, the government should play limited in societal issues such as healthcare.

UHS goes against the beliefs of American conservatives and this has made it hard for the system to be adopted in the US. Zieff et al. (2020) argued that only a small number of the participants support the system. The majority of the people believed that government should provide limited support on matters of health. They believed that people are majorly responsible for their health and not the government.

Time Management


I will spend 1 hour 30 minutes reviewing course information and reading discussion post question and assignment of the week.


I will spend 1 hour working on my original discussion post and post it before midnight. I will do the post after work


I will spend 30 minutes reading peer’s posts and responding to one of them.


I will spend 30 minutes reading peer’s posts and responding to one of them.


I will schedule 9 hours to read, research, and work on my weekly assignment. I will also read the posts for 1 hour and respond where needed.


I will schedule 4 hours going through the assignment and ensuring that all the elements have been included and submit the work.


I will do the final check on the final assignment draft to ensure I have incorporated all the components and format the paper into APA. I will then submit my assignment.


Certain characteristics are common in a medical culture which encourages healthcare professionals to use high-technology solutions to preventable problems. They include instant gratification, work satisfaction, and improved coordination of responsibilities and communication. One of the ways the “bottom line” focus has changed the healthcare system in the US is increasing the cost of care services.

The “bottom line” focus has also negatively impacted the quality of health and customer satisfaction and increased inequalities in care provision. UHS has received a lot of resistance in the US because the culture of the country is individualistic meaning that government should minimally impact social life. The interested groups have also channeled a lot of funds into lobbying against the policy, thus increasing resistance.


Deo, N., Johnson, E., Kancharla, K., O’Horo, J. C., & Kashyap, R. (2020). Instant gratification as a method to promote physician practice guideline adherence: A systematic review. Cureus12(7), e9381. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.9381

Dieleman, J. L., Cao, J., Chapin, A., Chen, C., Li, Z., Liu, A., & Murray, C. J. (2020). US health care spending by payer and health condition, 1996-2016. Jama, 323(9), 863-884. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2762309

Giovanella, L., Mendoza-Ruiz, A., Pilar, A. D. C. A., Rosa, M. C. D., Martins, G. B., Santos, I. S., & Machado, C. V. (2018). Universal health system and universal health coverage: assumptions and strategies. Ciencia & saude coletiva, 23, 1763-1776. https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232018236.05562018

Harerimana, B., Forchuk, C., & O’Regan, T. (2019). The use of technology for mental healthcare delivery among older adults with depressive symptoms: A systematic literature review. International Journal Of Mental Health Nursing, 28(3), 657-670. https://doi.org/10.1111/inm.12571

Ratna, H. N. (2020). Medical neoliberalism and the decline in US healthcare quality. Journal of Hospital Management and Health Policy [Internet], 4, 1-8. https://gs.alexu.edu.eg/new/upload/Students/0908/0908(1)703_2019-2020_Spring/0908-3-041_assignment_1.pdf

Sultz, H. A., & Young, K. A. (2017). Health care USA: Understanding its organization and delivery (9th ed.). Jones & Bartlett.

Zieff, G., Kerr, Z. Y., Moore, J. B., & Stoner, L. (2020). Universal Healthcare in the United States of America: A healthy debate. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)56(11), 580. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110580

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What are the concepts of health promotion?

Health promotion is a vital aspect of our lives, encompassing various strategies and approaches aimed at enhancing overall well-being. In this article, we delve into the fundamental concepts of health promotion, shedding light on its significance and the methods used to promote a healthier lifestyle.

Defining Health Promotion

At its core, health promotion is the proactive process of enabling individuals and communities to improve and maintain their health. It’s not merely about preventing diseases; it’s about fostering a holistic sense of well-being. Health promotion emphasizes empowering people to take control of their health through informed decisions and lifestyle changes.

The Importance of Health Promotion

1. Preventing Illnesses

One of the primary objectives of health promotion is to prevent illnesses. This involves raising awareness about the risks associated with unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a sedentary lifestyle. By educating individuals on these risks, we can empower them to make healthier choices.

2. Empowering Individuals

Health promotion empowers individuals to take charge of their health. It equips them with knowledge about healthy living, enabling them to make informed decisions. This empowerment leads to a sense of control over one’s well-being, reducing the likelihood of health-related issues.

3. Enhancing Quality of Life

Ultimately, health promotion aims to enhance the overall quality of life. By promoting healthy habits, such as a balanced diet and regular exercise, individuals can enjoy a better quality of life with improved physical and mental well-being.

Strategies for Effective Health Promotion

1. Education and Awareness

Education is a powerful tool in health promotion. By providing people with information about the benefits of a healthy lifestyle and the risks associated with unhealthy behaviors, we can encourage them to make positive changes.

2. Accessible Healthcare

Ensuring that healthcare services are accessible to all is a crucial aspect of health promotion. When healthcare is readily available, individuals are more likely to seek preventive care and early treatment, reducing the impact of diseases.

3. Community Involvement

Engaging communities in health promotion initiatives fosters a sense of collective responsibility. Community-driven programs, such as fitness classes and support groups, can motivate individuals to adopt healthier habits.

Transitioning Towards a Healthier Future

In conclusion, understanding the concepts of health promotion is essential for building a healthier society. By emphasizing prevention, empowerment, and the enhancement of quality of life, we can pave the way for a future where individuals are proactive in maintaining their health. Let us all take part in this journey towards a healthier and happier life.

Each week contribute 150-200 words (1,250-2,000 words total) to reflect and journal the professional practice, skills, and responses used in approaching or achieving the course

What is prevention and why is it important?

Prevention, in the context of health and well-being, refers to the proactive measures taken to avoid the occurrence or development of diseases, injuries, or other negative health outcomes. It involves a range of strategies and behaviors aimed at reducing the risk factors that can lead to health problems. Prevention is crucial for several reasons:

  1. Cost-Effective: Prevention is often more cost-effective than treating health issues once they have developed. Regular check-ups, vaccinations, and lifestyle changes are generally less expensive than medical treatments and interventions.
  2. Improved Quality of Life: Preventive measures, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, can significantly improve one’s quality of life. They promote overall well-being, physical fitness, and mental health.
  3. Reduced Burden on Healthcare Systems: Preventing diseases and injuries reduces the burden on healthcare systems, ensuring that resources are available for those in need of acute care. This is particularly important during public health crises.
  4. Long-Term Health: Prevention helps individuals maintain good health throughout their lives. It focuses on addressing risk factors and promoting healthy behaviors, which can lead to a longer and more fulfilling life.
  5. Avoiding Pain and Suffering: Many health conditions can cause pain and suffering. Prevention helps individuals avoid the physical and emotional distress associated with illness or injury.
  6. Protection of Vulnerable Populations: Prevention is essential for protecting vulnerable populations, such as children, the elderly, and those with compromised immune systems. Vaccinations, for example, help create herd immunity, reducing the spread of contagious diseases.
  7. Health Equity: Prevention initiatives can address health disparities by ensuring that all individuals, regardless of their background, have access to essential healthcare services and education about healthy living.
  8. Promoting Healthy Behaviors: Prevention encourages individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles. This includes habits like not smoking, limiting alcohol consumption, eating a balanced diet, and exercising regularly.
  9. Early Detection: Many prevention strategies include regular screenings and check-ups, which can lead to the early detection of health issues. Early intervention often results in better treatment outcomes.
  10. Environmental Benefits: Some prevention measures, such as reducing air pollution and promoting sustainable practices, have environmental benefits that extend beyond individual health to global well-being.

In summary, prevention is important because it not only saves lives and reduces healthcare costs but also promotes a culture of well-being and health consciousness. By taking proactive steps to prevent health issues, individuals can lead healthier, happier lives, and contribute to the overall betterment of society.

Pros and cons of for profit hospitals

Pros of For-Profit Hospitals:

  1. Financial Sustainability: For-profit hospitals are typically better equipped to generate revenue and sustain themselves financially. They have a profit motive, which can drive efficiency and financial stability.
  2. Advanced Facilities: These hospitals often invest heavily in state-of-the-art medical equipment and facilities. Patients may have access to cutting-edge treatments and technologies.
  3. Competition and Innovation: The profit motive encourages competition among for-profit hospitals. This competition can lead to innovation in healthcare delivery and the development of new medical techniques and procedures.
  4. Employment Opportunities: For-profit hospitals tend to offer more employment opportunities, stimulating local economies by creating jobs in healthcare and related industries.
  5. Efficiency: With a focus on profitability, for-profit hospitals may operate more efficiently, reducing wait times and improving the overall patient experience.

Cons of For-Profit Hospitals:

  1. Profit Over Patients: The primary goal of for-profit hospitals is to generate profit for their shareholders. Critics argue that this focus on profit can sometimes result in decisions that prioritize financial gain over patient care.
  2. High Costs: For-profit hospitals may charge higher prices for services, leading to increased healthcare costs for patients and insurers. This can be a barrier to access for some individuals.
  3. Uneven Access: For-profit hospitals may be more concentrated in wealthier areas, potentially leaving underserved communities with limited access to quality healthcare.
  4. Short-Term Focus: The profit-driven nature of for-profit hospitals can sometimes result in short-term decision-making, which may not align with the long-term health needs of patients or communities.
  5. Overutilization: To maximize revenue, for-profit hospitals may be more inclined to recommend additional tests or procedures, which can lead to overutilization of healthcare services and increased healthcare spending.
  6. Quality Concerns: Critics argue that for-profit hospitals may compromise the quality of care in pursuit of profits, potentially leading to issues like understaffing or inadequate patient care.
  7. Public Perception: Some individuals may view for-profit hospitals with skepticism, perceiving them as profit-driven entities that may not have the patient’s best interests at heart.

In summary, for-profit hospitals have both advantages and disadvantages. While they can bring financial stability, innovation, and efficiency to the healthcare sector, they may also be associated with concerns about cost, access, and the prioritization of profits over patient well-being. The impact of for-profit hospitals varies depending on the specific hospital and the regulatory environment in which they operate.

When did healthcare become a business?

The commercialization and business aspects of healthcare have evolved over centuries, with significant developments occurring at different points in history. Here is a broad overview of the timeline of healthcare becoming a business:

  1. Ancient Civilizations: In ancient civilizations, healing practices were often intertwined with religious or spiritual beliefs. There were individuals who provided healing services, and some of them may have charged for their services or accepted gifts. However, healthcare was primarily a communal and familial responsibility rather than a formal business.
  2. Medieval and Renaissance Periods: During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, medical knowledge began to formalize with the establishment of medical schools and the development of the profession of physicians. Medical practitioners started charging fees for their services, marking an early form of healthcare as a business.
  3. 19th Century: The 19th century witnessed significant advancements in medical science and the expansion of hospitals. As medical knowledge grew, so did the demand for medical services. Hospitals began to charge fees for treatment, and the medical profession became more organized and commercialized.
  4. 20th Century: The 20th century saw the rise of modern healthcare systems and the establishment of health insurance. With the introduction of health insurance plans, healthcare services became increasingly monetized, as insurers paid for medical treatments on behalf of policyholders. This led to a more business-oriented approach to healthcare.
  5. Late 20th Century to Present: In the latter half of the 20th century and into the 21st century, healthcare in many developed countries became big business. Pharmaceutical companies, medical device manufacturers, and healthcare providers became major players in the global economy. The privatization of healthcare services, the growth of healthcare conglomerates, and the proliferation of for-profit hospitals further emphasized the business aspect of healthcare.
  6. Healthcare Industry Today: In contemporary times, healthcare is a complex and multifaceted industry, with various stakeholders, including private hospitals, insurance companies, pharmaceutical giants, and medical technology firms. The profit motive is often central to these entities, shaping the delivery of healthcare services, drug pricing, and medical research.

Is the for profit model helping or hindering health care delivery in the United States?

The question of whether the for-profit model is helping or hindering healthcare delivery in the United States is a topic of ongoing debate, and opinions on this matter vary. Here, we’ll present both perspectives:

Pros of the For-Profit Model in Healthcare:

  1. Innovation: Proponents argue that the profit motive encourages innovation in medical treatments, technologies, and healthcare delivery models. Pharmaceutical companies, for example, invest heavily in research and development to create new drugs and therapies.
  2. Efficiency: Some believe that for-profit healthcare entities operate more efficiently, reducing wait times, streamlining administrative processes, and optimizing resource allocation.
  3. Access to Capital: For-profit healthcare organizations can access capital markets to fund expansions, build state-of-the-art facilities, and invest in cutting-edge medical equipment. This can lead to improved infrastructure and increased access to healthcare services.
  4. Competition: Competition among for-profit hospitals and healthcare providers may lead to improved quality of care as facilities strive to attract patients by offering high-quality services and amenities.

Cons of the For-Profit Model in Healthcare:

  1. Costs: Critics argue that the for-profit model often leads to higher healthcare costs. Profit-seeking entities may charge more for services, drugs, and medical devices, contributing to rising healthcare expenses.
  2. Unequal Access: Some believe that the for-profit model can result in unequal access to healthcare, with healthcare facilities concentrated in wealthier areas while underserved communities face limited access to quality care.
  3. Focus on Profit Over Patients: Concerns exist that for-profit healthcare organizations may prioritize financial gain over patient well-being, potentially leading to decisions that compromise the quality of care or understaffing.
  4. Complex Billing and Administrative Overhead: The for-profit model can contribute to complex billing processes and administrative overhead, diverting resources away from direct patient care.
  5. Insurance Challenges: For-profit insurance companies may have a profit motive that can conflict with the goal of providing affordable coverage. This can result in disputes over coverage and claims denials.
  6. Healthcare Disparities: Critics argue that the profit-driven nature of the U.S. healthcare system contributes to healthcare disparities, as individuals with lower incomes may face barriers to accessing necessary care.

In conclusion, whether the for-profit model helps or hinders healthcare delivery in the United States is a complex and contentious issue. It’s important to note that the U.S. healthcare system is a mix of for-profit and not-for-profit entities, making it difficult to make blanket statements. Some argue that the for-profit model drives innovation and efficiency, while others contend that it leads to cost-related challenges and access disparities. Ultimately, the assessment of the for-profit model’s impact on healthcare delivery depends on one’s perspective and the specific context within the healthcare system.



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